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Open access

Anna Cwener and Marcin Nowak

Actual State and Changes of Flora and Vegetation in the Broczówka Steppe Reserve

This paper presents floristic characterization of xerothermic plant associations and analysis of changes of flora within Broczówka steppe reserve. The floristic research was carried out in 2004-2009. Numerous species that were noted here almost 30 years ago were not found in the present study, the size of other populations decreased. Nevertheless, many plant species occurring in the reserve are rare, endangered or protected. Six major plant associations, impoverished form of two ones and one plant community are distinguished in the whole area of the reserve. Occurrence of two plant associations was not confirmed.

Open access

Krzysztof Buśko and Anna Nowak

Changes of Maximal Muscle Torque and Maximal Power Output of Lower Extremities in Male Judoists During Training

Purpose. The aim of the study was to follow changes of the maximal muscle torque and maximal power output of lower extremities in male judoists during pre-competition training (PCT). The original hypothesis assumed that different training loads would cause changes of the maximal muscle torque and maximal power output of legs in male judoists during pre-competition training, but not changes of the topography of the maximal muscle torque in all muscle groups. Basic procedures. The study sample consisted of five male judoists from the Polish National Team. Muscle torque measurements in static conditions were performed shortly before PCT (I), after the strength training mesocycle (II) and immediately after PCT (III). Ten muscle groups were examined: flexors and extensors of the trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee. The maximal power output of legs was measured on a dynamometric platform during counter-movement jumps (CMJ) and bounce counter-movement jumps (BCMJ). Main findings. The sums of the muscle torque of both arms and the trunk were changed insignificantly during pre-competition training (PCT). The sum of muscle torque of the right and left lower extremities increased significantly between the measurements I and III. The muscle percent topography of muscle groups also showed significant changes. Maximal power output of lower extremities measured during CMJ decreased significantly, but increased during BCMJ. Conclusion. PCT caused changes of the maximal muscle torque of lower extremities, but the muscle topography of the muscle groups revealed significant changes, too. The maximal power output of lower extremities measured during CMJ decreased.

Open access

Anna Majchrzak and Wojciech Nowak

Abstract

Adsorption is considered as one of the most promising technologies for CCS. Gas adsorption involves the separation of gaseous components from flue gas using solid adsorbents. The gaseous component, adsorbate, is adsorbed from the gas phase on a solid material. Regarding CO2adsorption, it is important to consider the parameters, that is the high sorption capacity, CO2selectivity, regeneration and stability in multiple cycles. New directions for the development of adsorbents are focused on increasing their capacity - for this purpose, amine impregnation is carried out. This paper presents a new approach to obtaining mesoporous material from fly ash and, based on this, a new physico-chemical adsorbent obtained by impregnation. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR infrared spectroscopy.

Open access

Piotr Nowak, Anna Jastrzębiec-Witowska and Krzysztof Gorlach

Abstract

In this paper the authors consider some issues concerning the problems of rural cooperatives in contemporary Poland. In the first part, the important role of cooperatives in agricultural changes as well as rural development has been stressed, especially as an opposition to neo-liberal tendencies in the food economy. In such a context, the authors would like to compare some opinions concerning cooperative movements presented by farmers who are members and non-members of cooperatives. The characteristics of respondents contain some information about their sex, age, level of education as well as ownership status, including also the size of the possessed farms. Moreover, the presentation of attitudes has been focussed on the issues of cooperation with other farmers as well as general trust in others. The issues of knowledge about cooperative ideas and contemporary cooperative movements have been taken into consideration. In the final part of the empirical analysis some opinions concerning major obstacles to the development of cooperative movements have been considered. To conclude the whole paper the authors stress some differences in opinions and attitudes between members and non-members of cooperatives. However, what seems to be even more important is that even farmers who are members of cooperatives lacked sufficient knowledge on issues that make cooperatives successful.

Open access

Barbara Dyki, Renata Nowak and Anna Stępowska

The Influence of Flower Structures on the Seeds Productivity of the Carrot Breeding Lines

The aim of the study was to examine the morphological diversity of flowers of male-sterile (CMS) and male-fertile breeding lines of carrot and its influence on seed setting.

In examined male-sterile carrot population stamens are transformed into petal-like structures of different shapes. It was observed that in some anther-like structures sporogenic tissue degenerates. It is supposed that decrease of seeds productivity of carrot breeding lines could be caused by morphological abnormalities of mother and father-parental flowers. Degeneration of pollen, the absence of endothecium, which is responsible for opening the anthers and growth of pollen tubes on the external area of the pistil, decreasing the number of functional pollen influence negatively fertilization. Moreover, other specific traits of male-sterile mother plants, as reduction of nectaries size, pistils deformation, ovule and embryo degeneration also inhibit process of seed setting. The lowest amount of seeds produced plants with multiple stigma pistils and nectaries deformations. Male-sterile plants with white flower petals, big nectaries, exposed, doubled pistils and big ovaries produced more seeds than the other mother plants.

Open access

Anna Nowak and Tomasz Kijek

Abstract

Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the study is to assess the regional differentiation of the average level of farm income and to answer the question of whether during 2006-2014 there was a tendency towards convergence in this area. Materials and methods: The spatial scope of research included four FADN agricultural regions, whereas the time span covered the years 2006-2014. The numerical data used for the analyses were sourced from standard FADN results. The assessment of convergence was carried out using the coefficient of variation (sigma convergence) and the relative index of changes in the regions compared to the country (beta convergence). Results: The conducted research indicates the existence of regional disproportions in terms of average income level and average labour profitability on farms. The highest average income was achieved throughout all the years covered by research in the region of Pomerania and Masuria, and the lowest one in Lesser Poland and Carpathian Foothills. The research demonstrates that during 2006-2014 there was no convergence in the average level of income and average labour profitability of farms in the FADN regions. Conclusions: Convergence is a long-term process, so the research should be treated as an initial examination of the regional differentiation of the income situation of farms.

Open access

Anna Barańska and Dominika Nowak

Abstract

Referring to the developed and presented in previous publications (e.g. Barańska 2011) two-stage algorithm for real estate valuation, this article addresses the problem of the relationship between the two stages of the algorithm. An essential part of the first stage is the multi-dimensional function modelling of the real estate market. As a result of selecting the model best fitted to the market data, in which the dependent variable is always the price of a real property, a set of market attributes is obtained, which in this model are considered to be price-determining. In the second stage, from the collection of real estate which served as a database in the process of estimating model parameters, the selected objects are those which are most similar to the one subject to valuation and form the basis for predicting the final value of the property being valued. Assessing the degree of similarity between real properties can be carried out based on the full spectrum of real estate attributes that potentially affect their value and which it is possible to gather information about, or only on the basis of those attributes which were considered to be price-determining in function modelling. It can also be performed by various methods. This article has examined the effect of various approaches on the final value of the property obtained using the two-stage prediction. In order fulfill the study aim precisely as possible, the results of each calculation step of the algorithm have been investigated in detail. Each of them points to the independence of the two procedures.

Open access

Szymon Świerkosz, Zbigniew Nowak and Anna Pacyna

Abstract

Competitive sport causes physiological changes called athlete’s heart. In most cases echocardiographic parameters return to normal after cessation of career. Sudden cardiac death may occur in persons with previously diagnosed or undiagnosed heart disease. Mortality is 1-3 people/100,000. The main reasons for death is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and commotio cordis. In cardiomyopathy coronary vasculature does not increase proportionately to heart mass. In the case of extreme physical effort areas of poor blood supply can cause dangerous arrhythmias. Commotio cordis is caused by by blunt trauma to the thorax, which induces ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest without structural damage.

Open access

Zygmunt Kowalski, Regina Kijkowska, Katarzyna Gorazda, Zbigniew Wzorek and Anna Nowak

Analysis of sodium tripolyphosphate production processes with a cumulative calculation method

Sodium tripolyphosphate - one of the condensed phosphates is an important ingredient in various types of cleaning substances and a food additive. The paper presents a comparison of different variants of STPP production with the application of the cumulative calculation method. The material balances of the processes were taken as the basis of the analysis. The method of the process analysis as shown in the cumulative calculation determines the influence of the emissions of dust and gas pollutions originating from a particular production process, as well as wastewater and solid wastes resulting from it, upon the natural environment. It was proved that the solution of the production STPP with the dry one-step method has the lowest impact on the environment among the three assessed solutions.

Open access

Anna Nowak, Anna Kobiałka and Hanna Klikocka

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this paper is Measure 121 of the 2007-2013 RDP, called Modernisation of agricultural holdings. The objective of the study was to present the diversification of regional absorption of aid funds used under this measure and to assess the correlation between the scale of the use of these funds and the level of labor productivity in agriculture.

Materials and methods: On the basis of the GUS data, the regional differentiation of the absorption of aid funds from the analyzed measure and labor productivity in agriculture were assessed. The relation between these categories was determined based on Pearson’s linear correlation index.

Results and conclusions: A strong regional diversification of labor productivity in agriculture and the level of utilization of European Union funds directed at modernization of agricultural holdings was observed. There is a relation between the scale of the utilization of funds under Measure 121 of the RDP and the efficiency of labor factor. It can therefore be assumed that the form of support investigated is a significant stimulus for the increase in the level of work efficiency.