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Open access

Katarzyna Witek, Krzysztof Mazurek, Anna Mróz, Anna Czajkowska and Anna Kęska


Study aim: the aim of study was assessment somatic features and selected cardio-ventilatory indices in men above 50 years old with different physical activity levels.

Materials and methods: the study included 55 men on average aged 54.5 ± 4.32, classified to the trained group (T), n = 33, and not trained group (NT), n = 22. Total physical activity was assessed using the SDPAR Questionnaire. Measurements: anthropometric indices, ventilatory indices and VO2 peak, hemodynamic indices and fatigue using Borg scale during exercise maximal test.

Results: daily energy expenditures for sport and recreation differ significantly between T and NT groups, 6.82 METs vs. 0.2 METs, respectively (p < 0.001). Men in T and NT groups significantly differ in somatic features, and cardio-pulmonary indices including: time of physical tests effort (s) 1103 ± 193 vs. 681 ± 328; max speed (km/h) 14 ± 1.5 vs. 10 ± 1.4, VE peak 135.9 ± 21.17 l/min vs. 112.9 ± 21.49 l/min; VO2 peak 61.8 ± 8.83 ml/kg/min vs. 41.9 ± 8.55 ml/kg/min; HR rest (beat/min) 69 ± 16.95 vs. 83 ± 14.48; HR peak (beat/min) 171 ± 1.23 vs. 163 ± 15.28; SV peak (ml) 162 ± 24.23 vs. 135 ± 33.22; CO peak 27.4 ± 4,3 vs. 21.6 ± 5.17.

Conclusions: men aged 50+ who practice running training differ favourably and significantly from men not trained in anthropometric as well as cardio-ventilatory indices. Significant correlations were found between DEE and FAT(%), VO2 peak (ml/kg/min), SV peak (ml) and COpeak (l/min) as well between CO peak and VO2peak was record linear relationship (r = 0.56).

Open access

Anna Mróz, Krzysztof Buśko and Bożena Wit

Changes in physiological and biomechanical variables in women practicing the Power Yoga system

Study aim: To investigate changes in selected indices of anaerobic capacity, the ability to maintain body balance and the height of elevating body's centre of mass, and maximum power output in lower limbs during countermovement jump (CMJ) after 6 months of participation in yoga classes in Ashtanga Vinyasa system (Power Yoga).

Material and methods: The study included 24 untrained women who volunteered to participate in a half-year experiment. The analysis focused on 12 women who participated in the classes until the experiment ended. The Wingate test was used to evaluate anaerobic capacity. In order to measure the functional state of vestibular organ the authors used a stabilographic method. Measurements of power output in the lower limbs and the height of elevation of the centre of mass in CMJ jumps were carried out using a dynamometric platform.

Results: The 6 months of training in the Power Yoga system considerably improved the height of CMJ jumps from 0.276 ± 0.048 m to 0.308 ± 0.038 m (p<0.05). These changes were not accompanied by significant increases in maximum power output (1286 ± 200 W and 1327 ± 2134 W before and after, respectively; p>0.05).

Conclusions: Practicing Power Yoga does not induce changes in the anaerobic capacity and the functional state of the vestibular organ in women.

Open access

Bartosz Molik, Andrzej Kosmol, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Judit Lencse-Mucha, Anna Mróz, Karol Gryko and Jolanta Marszałek


In wheelchair sports, aerobic performance is commonly assessed with the use of an arm crank ergometer (ACE), a wheelchair ergometer (WCE) or a wheelchair treadmill (WCT). There are different protocols to identify peak oxygen uptake in wheelchair sports; however, only a few protocols have been applied to evaluate these conditions in wheelchair basketball players. The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses during maximal exercise testing with the use of ACE and WCT in wheelchair basketball players. Twelve elite male wheelchair basketball players participated in this study. The research was performed during a training camp of the Polish National Wheelchair Basketball Team. The study participants were divided into two functional categories: A (players with class 1.0 - 2.5) and B (players with class 3.0 - 4.5). Two main maximal exercise tests, i.e. wheelchair treadmill stress test (WCT test) and arm crank ergometer stress test (ACE test) were used to evaluate aerobic performance of the players. There were no statistically significant differences in aerobic tests between the players from both groups. The comparison of results achieved in two aerobic tests performed on WCT and ACE did not reveal any significant differences between the analyzed variables (peak heart rate (HRpeak), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), minute ventilation (VE), anaerobic threshold (AT), lactate concentration (LApeak), and a drop in lactate concentration (%LA)). Strong correlations between results achieved in WCT and ACE tests were found for VO2peak, VE and LApeak. The main conclusion of the study is that both WCT and ACE tests may be useful when determining aerobic capacity of wheelchair basketball players. Moreover, both protocols can be used by athletes regardless of their functional capabilities and types of impairment.

Open access

Andrzej Wiśniewski, Wojciech Jarosz, Anna Czajkowska, Anna Mróz, Marcin Smolarczyk, Andrzej Magiera, Przemysław Kowalczyk, Dagmara Zimmerman-Rysz and Marek Kowalczyk


Few studies have been published in Poland concerning body dimensions of firefighters from the State Fire Service although this knowledge is needed for e.g. development of personal protective equipment. The aim of the study was to evaluate body dimensions and weight-to-height ratio in firefighters from the State Fire Service. Using the anthropological procedures, body mass (BM) and body height (BH) were examined in 178 men at the chronological age (CA) of 19.5 to 53 years who were rescuers from the national rescue and fire brigades of the State Fire Service. The study participants were divided into three categories of CA: up to 25 years, between 24 and 44 years, and over 44 years. The results were compared to population standards. It was found that BH of the youngest rescuers was significantly higher (0.05) than in other study participants. Based on the standardized values of BM and BMI, population of firefighters aged over 25 years was found to be characterized by overweight and, in certain cases, even by obesity. The excess level of body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kgm2) was found in nearly 60% of study participants, with half of the group classified as overweight (n=31, BMI ranging from 25 to 29.9 kg/m2), and 10% classified as obese. Due to the worrying high percentage of cases of excess body mass in firefighters from the State Fire Service, it was found that it is recommended to evaluate the relationships between body height and mass on regular basis during periodical obligatory tests of physical fitness of rescuers from the State Fire Service and to increase the frequency and duration of training sessions.

Open access

Krzysztof Mazurek, Piotr Zmijewski, Hubert Makaruk, Anna Mróz, Anna Czajkowska, Katarzyna Witek, Sławomir Bodasiński and Patrycja Lipińska


The aim of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and jump training on physical performance in young male handball players. Twenty-six young male handball players were divided into two sub-groups to perform a five-week pre-season training programme supplemented with two ground-reactive protocols with an equal number of jumping exercises referred as to ground contacts: plyometric training (PLY; n = 14) and standard jump training (CON; n = 12). Before and after training, repeated sprint ability (RSA), jumping ability (JA), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and aerobic power at the anaerobic threshold (PAT) were measured. A two-factor analysis revealed significant time effects with improvements in fat mass (p = 0.012), maximal power during the incremental cycling test (p = 0.001) and PAT (p < 0.001), power decline (PDEC) and maximal power (Pmax) in the 5th repetition (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The training-induced changes in absolute and relative peak power in the RSA test and absolute VO2max approached significance (p = 0.06, p = 0.053 and p = 0.06). No intervention time × exercise protocol effects were observed for any indices of JA, RSA and aerobic capacity. A five-week pre-season conditioning programme supplemented with only 15 sessions of plyometric exercise did not induce any additional benefits, compared to a matched format of standard jump training, in terms of improving jumping performance and maximal power in the RSA test. Aerobic capacity and the fatigue index in RSA were maintained under these two training conditions.

Open access

Krzysztof Gondek, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Bożena Smreczak, Agnieszka Baran, Michał Kopeć, Tomasz Mróz, Paweł Janowski, Tomasz Bajda and Anna Tomczyk


The aim of this research was to determine the effect of thermal conversion temperature and plant material addition to sewage sludge on the PAHs content and the activity of selected γ-radionuclides in biochars, and to conduct an ecotoxicological assessment. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials at 300°C and such temperature caused an increase in the contents of 2- and 3-ring hydrocarbons. During the pyrolysis of organic materials at 600°C, the amount of the following compounds was reduced in biochars: benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3c,d]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. Among γ-radioisotopes of the elements, natural radiogenic isotopes were dominant. 137Cs was the only artificial radioactive isotope. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of municipal sewage sludge and plant materials revealed that isotope 40K had the highest radioactive activity. In the case of other analysed nuclides, activities of 212Pb, 214Pb, 214Bi, and 137Cs were determined after the sample pyrolysis. The extracts from the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials were non-toxic to Vibrio fischeri.