This research empirically explores the relation between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth during the period 1992-2010, using panel data on the European Union countries. Both fixed and random effect models are employed to test the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita. While no U-shaped EKC was confirmed empirically for all 28 current EU member states, the graphical analysis demonstrates a justified turning point for CO2 emissions as GDP per capita reaches the level of 23,000 USD. Furthermore, there is a firm empirical ground for the EKC hypothesis based on data from 16 older, relatively high-income EU states. Thus, though not empirically confirmed, there is ample data verifying the existence of the EKC in EU economies.
A neural-network controlled dynamic evolutionary scheme for global molecular geometry optimization
A novel, neural network controlled, dynamic evolutionary algorithm is proposed for the purposes of molecular geometry optimization. The approach is tested for selected model molecules and some molecular systems of importance in biochemistry. The new algorithm is shown to compare favorably with the standard, statically parametrized memetic algorithm.
The aim of the article is to present the application of the lean management method as appropriate for the management of the organizational system of psychiatric care in the Zealand region of Denmark. The organizational solutions of the Danish psychiatric care system presented in this paper are individualized and adapted to the regional needs of the residents. In Denmark, there are five administrative regions, in which each independently organizes its own system of medical (psychiatric) care. This means that the regions have considerable independence in choosing the acceptable and necessary methods of management, including – as is clear from the conducted research – the use of methods put-upon other areas of economy. Although the national laws in Denmark define certain conditions and guidelines for the functioning of psychiatric care (e.g. regarding the use of direct coercion/restrains for patients treated in the centres), there is a distinct separation of structures and methods of functioning throughout the whole country, which constitutes unique observation material – from the cognitive point of view. The authors of this paper conduct extensive research and analyse the systems of psychiatric care organizations in various countries (including Spain, Italy and Japan) and, as a result, the obtained results may lead to the selection of the best models from other systems (good organizational practices and management, the management methods in use), which can be applied in the currently reorganised system of the Polish psychiatric care. The choice of Denmark for the observational study is not accidental and is related not only to the fact that there is a large degree of systemic identity within the country and between the regions, but also because the country applies solutions addressed to patients with very different cultural conditions and needs, resulting from their descent, religion, and (world)-views. Denmark is one of those European countries that express a significant acceptance of diversity and tolerance, which is why communities with very different imponderables, denominations, and worldviews co-exist. In the area related to the organization of the psychiatric system, these conditions are of key importance. In the period from January 2015 to December 2017 the authors participated in study visits in Denmark, conducting research aimed at identifying the key success factors of the psychiatric care organization system in the country. The conducted analysis is also based on the analysis of literature and own and participant observations. The conclusions concerning this subject are also the result of interviews conducted with employees of the visited hospitals and system users, both professionals and patients. As the search for an optimal organizational model of psychiatric care is currently an ongoing concern in Poland, it seems justified to review the existing solutions in Europe and perform their critical analysis. A comparison of the adopted solutions was performed, in the context of, above all, the improvement of the quality of these services, their availability, and the satisfaction of patients and their families from the proposed organizational changes. The economic benefits of these solutions are also significant.
Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the key health problems in European countries. This article presents a study that is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) implemented in the WHO European Region since 2007. The main goal of the study is to monitor obesity in early school-aged children. The methodology of the study, the thematic scope of research tools, the organisational principles and the development of research carried out in Poland in the context of existing international assumptions are presented. In Poland, two rounds of the study were financed by the National Health Program, in cooperation with the WHO Office in Poland. The first study was carried out from November to December 2016 on a group of 3,408 children aged 8 years from 135 schools and 2,298 parents, in 9 voivodeships in Poland. The second round was carried out in the last quarter of 2018 in 12 voivodeships. A group of 2691 pupils aged 8 years from the 2nd grade of 140 primary schools in Poland and 2450 parents were examined. Data on body mass index distribution and lifestyle-related behaviours of children and their families were collected. Poland is the first country where blood pressure was measured in all participants of the COSI study. Considering the growing obesity epidemic, reliable monitoring of overweight and obesity in early childhood and the study of determinants of this phenomenon should be a priority for public health. The results obtained from this type of research are a reference point for the design and implementation of accurate prevention initiatives in this age group.
Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the relation between existential attitudes and occupational burnout in nurses.
Material and methods. The research sample consisted of 120 nurses. Life Attitudes Profile - Revised (the LAP-R) adapted by R. Klamut and Link Burnout Questionnaire (the LBQ) adapted by A. Jaworowska were used in the research.
Results. Psycho-physical exhaustion and relationship deterioration correlate negatively with life goals, internal consistency, life control, death acceptance and positively with existential void and goal seeking. Sense of professional failure and disillusion present a conversely proportional relation with goal, coherence, life control as well as an inversely proportional relation with existential void and goal seeking.
Conclusions. The analyses performed in the course of the research proved that existential attitudes accompany burnout in nurses. The obtained results of the authors’ own research present cognitive value and can be used to develop both prevention and aid programs aimed at enhancing the quality of personal and professional functioning of nurses.
This paper describes results of tests dedicated to studying – in simulated environmental conditions – operation of a battery pack designed for powering unmanned aircraft systems. In particular, the tests concerned determining the electrical parameters of battery packs, with and without radiators, during their operation in changing environmental conditions and resistance to large temperature fluctuations. Amicell, a high density lithium polymer battery manufactured by the Israeli Amit Industries ltd., was selected for testing. The test results present characteristics of the batteries tested in different temperatures and allow for designing and trying out proper battery protections against environmental conditions, with the intention to attain continuous and correct operation. The tests have been carried out in the accredited Environmental Test Laboratory which is part of the Department of Avionics of the Institute of Aviation in Poland.
The comparative study defines the terms electronic learning environment and smart learning environment with their components and contribution to university education. Moreover, it introduces identified trends that are expected to emerge in the next five years. The research on a representative sample of the University of Ostrava students and the University of Silesia students, which was carried out within the scope of the 7th RP IRNet project, was aimed at how the individual components of the electronic learning environment can be used, the reasons for their use and the related needs of students.
Introduction. The provision of adequate health care for a successively growing group of geriatric patients requires taking into account many factors in order to preserve and/or improve their overall health and the related functional capacity. Its crucial aspects include the ability to safely change position and locomotion, as well as the severity of discomfort from the osteoarticular system.
Aim. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of comprehensive ambulatory rehabilitation including tailored endurance training, preceded by an ergospirometry test, on indicators showing the risk of falls and the severity of pain symptoms of patients aged 60 and over, receiving health services at the Outpatient Healthcare Home (DDOM).
Material and methods. The study involved 60 seniors during their rehabilitation cycle implemented as part of the services provided to patients at DDOM of the W. Chodźko Institute of Rural Health in Lublin. The tests were carried out in the test-retest model on the first and last day of the kinesiotherapy cycle. The Tinetti scale of the risk of falls, balance and walk and Visual Analogue Scale of the severity of pain sensations (VAS) were utilized in the research. The patient rehabilitation program at the DDOM included adapted systemic kinesiotherapy (endurance training with a load determined according to individual exercise capacity, as determined on the basis of the ergospirometry test) and local kinesiotherapy as well as physical therapy adapted to the needs resulting from the condition of the musculoskeletal system.
Results. After completing the rehabilitation cycle, the patients obtained higher scores, compared to the tests carried out before the beginning of the rehabilitation cycle, in the scales of Tinetti Questionnaire. There were also lower results of the respondents in VAS scale used to assess the severity of pain sensations.
Conclusions. As a result of the rehabilitation program applied, DDOM patients simultaneously obtained the desired changes in minimizing the risk of falls, improving the ability to maintain balance and fitness while walking, as well as reducing the severity of pain sensation.
Introduction. Well-implemented, holistic care of the dying patient requires appropriate qualifications from the medical personnel.
Aim. The aim of the study was to collect the opinions of nursing and medical students before the end of their professional education on their preparation to provide care to the dying patient.
Material and methods. The survey was carried out in a group of 213 medical and nursing students during their final year of professional education.
Results. Students were unable to clearly express their opinion on their preparation to provide care to patients at the end of their lives (87; 40.8%). Nursing students were more likely to perceive themselves as prepared for such care – 30 (26.7%) than medical students – 11 (10.9%). Statistically significant correlation was observed. A large group of the students (92; 43.2%) had never been present at the scene of a patient’s death during clinical classes. The majority of the respondents chose ‘definitely not’ (59; 27.7%) and ‘rather not’ (53; 24.9%) answers when asked if their university education had prepared them for work with patients at the end of their lives. Students considered their knowledge to be lacking mostly in areas such as coping with their own emotions in the face of a patient’s death (137; 64.3%); communicating with a dying person (119; 55.9%); providing care to the patient’s family (154; 72.3%); cooperating with the patient’s family (125; 58.7%).
Conclusions. Students of both majors are not certain about the level of their preparation to provide care to people at the end of their lives, nor about the extent to which their university education had introduced them to the specificity of care of a dying patient. The medical students were observed to exhibit higher statistical significance as compared to the nursing students. The university curriculum prepared the students to take care of the dying patient’s biological sphere, but did not prepare them to assume a holistic approach to care of the patient and his family.
Introduction. As a result of involution processes and diseases, changes occur in the human body, as a result of which, psychophysical fitness declines with age. Comprehensive rehabilitation is the way of improving and maintaining health condition, including, among others, the appropriate level of physical activity and the quality of affective functioning. This type of program was carried out as part of the Outpatient Healthcare Home (DDOM) at the Witold Chodźko Institute of Rural Health in Lublin.
Aim. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of comprehensive ambulatory rehabilitation, including tailored endurance training preceded by an ergospirometry test, on indicators demonstrating the level of involvement in daily physical activities and the severity of depressive symptoms of patients over 60 years of age receiving health services at DDOM.
Material and methods. The study involved 60 seniors participating in the rehabilitation cycle implemented as part of the services provided to patients at DDOM of the Witold Chodźko Institute of Rural Health in Lublin. The tests were carried out in the test-retest model on the first and last day of the kinesiotherapy cycle. The tests were performed with use of International Physical Activity Questionnaire IPAQ and Geriatric Depression Scale GDS. The patient rehabilitation program included adapted systemic kinesiotherapy (endurance training with a load determined according to individual exercise capacity, as determined on the basis of the ergospirometry test) and local kinesiotherapy and physical therapy adapted to the needs resulting from the condition of the musculoskeletal system.
Results. After the completion of the rehabilitation cycle we compared the tests carried out before it, and the patients received higher scores in the scales of IPAQ questionnaire for measuring weekly, intensive and mode-rate physical activity and time required for walking and were less likely to spend their time sitting or lying down. There were also lower scores of the respondents in GDS scale used to assess the severity of depressive symptoms.
Conclusions. As a result of the rehabilitation program applied, DDOM patients simultaneously obtained the desired changes in the level of involvement in physical activity and minimization of the intensity of depressive symptoms.