Anna Maliszewska and Grażyna Niemczynow-Burchart
Anna Predko-Maliszewska, Agnieszka Predko-Engel and Maciej Goliński
This article describes methods used in estimating skeletal age based both on the evaluation of skeletal maturation of the palm and the wrist (Greulich and Pyle’s atlas method) and the Cervical Vertebral Maturation method (CVM). The method of evaluating the skeletal age based on the measurement of cervical vertebrae with equations introduced by A. Machorowska-Pieniążek is also mentioned. The article shows results obtained by computer analysis of the age of cervical vertebrae compared to the results gained from the implemented equations provided by A. Machorowska-Pieniążek and the results obtained from the atlas method.
Norbert Maliszewski, Anna O. Kuźmińska, Grażyna Wieczorkowska-Wierzbińska and Anna Werner-Maliszewska
The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998) and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001).It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit) level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the way it is explicitly expressed: through desire for leadership and prominence vs. desire for helping. Results of Study 1 indicated that business majors (management, N=79) declared a higher leadership motive and a lower helping motive than non-business majors (history, psychology, linguistics, N=62).Study 2 addressed question whether the above differences in power motivation stem from socialization at the university level or from pre-selection. The relationship between high school students’ (N=134) academic major preferences and their power motivation was tested. It was found that the more they were business-oriented, the higher their scores were on leadership, and lower on helping scales. In Study 3, business majors (economics, N=75) and non-business majors (psychology, N=82) completed the same questionnaire as participants in previous studies, as well as performed the IAT. Non-business majors declared stronger explicit helping motive, while business majors expressed stronger prominence and leadership motives. Furthermore, for non-business majors, IAT results could be predicted by their helping score. Implications and possible limitations of the presented results are discussed.