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Anna Majda, Joanna Zalewska-Puchała, Kinga Cholewa, Iwona Bodys-Cupak and Alicja Kamińska

Abstract

Introduction. Migration of professional nurses is a global phenomenon. Polish nurses usually migrate to the relatively richer countries, especially in Europe, thanks to the opening of the borders of the European Union (2004) and legal regulations in the field of education of nurses (Directive 2005/36/EC). Aim. The analysis of symptoms and determinants of acculturative stress and acculturative strategies among Polish migrant nurses working in the UK. Material and methods. The study used a proprietary questionnaire and standardized tool the East Asian Acculturation Measure - Scale of Acculturative Strategy. The research was carried out through Internet among 62 people. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn test, coefficient Spearman. Results. The main reason for the migration of respondents to the UK was the desire to improve financial situation and professional development. Responders found job as a nurse, including a charge nurse and managers in hospitals and nursing homes. Acculturative stress manifested most often in social functioning, then in the emotional, cognitive and physical aspects. It was characterized by a sense of lack of interest from British people, sadness, feelings of loneliness, lower self-confidence and shyness. It was determined significantly by the age of the respondents, the length of stay in the UK, knowledge of English and maintaining social contacts with the British. The most commonly used acculturation strategy was integration, conditioned by the length of stay in the UK and symptoms of acculturative stress. Conclusions. Working in a foreign country is associated with acculturative stress, implementation of acculturation adaptive and non-adaptive strategies.

Open access

Aleksandra Karcz, Anna Majda, Aldona Wróbel and Tomasz Karcz

Abstract

Introduction. Asthma is a chronic disease. Risky health behaviours among patients like exposure to allergens or stress, smoking, irregular drug taking, lack of physical activity can exacerbate the condition. Psychosocial resources, like self-efficacy, social support and patient’s acceptance of the condition may prove helpful in coping with the disease.

Aim. Investigating health behaviours among asthmatic patients, discussing psychosocial resources and assessing the degree of disease acceptance in order to account for the relationship between the latter two variables.

Material and methods. The study group included 100 patients suffering from asthma. A questionnaire designed especially for investigating that group of patients, as well as two standardized tools (the Acceptance of Illness Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale) were used. A chi-square test was used for performing a statistical analysis. the level of significance was set at p <0.05.

Results. Some 43% of patients assessed their acceptance of the condition as medium, while another 52% assessed their self-efficacy as average. Almost all respondents (91%) received support from their loved ones. Almost all admitted they engaged in some physical activity. Most respondents took drugs irregularly and were exposed to stress; more than a half declared exposure to allergens. The higher their self-efficacy was, the more likely they were to engage in sport activities. Self-efficacy and acceptance of the disease by respondents resulted in a significant decrease in asthma exacerbation incidence. The more support they received, the higher their acceptance of the disease was.

Conclusions. The respondents showed both positive and negative health behaviours. Self-efficacy was a significant predictor/ indicator of physical activity only. There was a significant relationship between the support that the patients received and their acceptance of the disease.

Open access

Anna Majda, Joanna Zalewska-Puchała, Iwona Bodys-Cupak, Alicja Kamińska and Marcin Suder

Abstract

Introduction. A review literature concerning the religious affiliation and that of cardiovascular disease did not show any clear correlations between these variables. Aim. To determine selected cardiovascular risk factors and the risk of a cardiovascular event among Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) and Catholics. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the years 2014-2015 among 252 people, including 118 Seventhday Adventists and 134 Catholics over 18 years of age, residents of southern Poland. The results of the following were analysed: anthropometric measurements, an interview questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory tests, as well as the SCORE scale. Results. The mean concentration of homocysteine and triglycerides in Catholics was significantly higher than in Adventists. Adventists had significantly higher blood pressure and mean HDL cholesterol concentration than Catholics. On the basis of BMI, overweight and obesity were ascertained in a somewhat greater percentage of Catholics than Adventists, and on the basis of waist circumference, android obesity was found to be more common in Catholics than in Adventists. Conclusions. Based on the SCORE scale, the risk of a cardiovascular event was significantly higher in Catholics than in Adventists.

Open access

Barbara Ślusarska, Danuta Zarzycka, Anna Majda and Beata Dobrowolska

Abstract

Introduction. The ongoing process of globalisation is contributing to the reconfiguration of social behaviour, even in small and relatively stable communities. The increased migration of people has led to more-varied groups of patients. The provision of nursing care which is consistent with a given culture, and adjusted to the particular needs of its recipient, is becoming a necessity. The development of cultural competence in the nurse's education, aimed at responding to the needs and demands of the global community, constitutes a current challenge for nursing.

Aim. The aim of this paper is to describe the assumptions put forward within the selected theoretical models of transcultural nursing, the nurses' cultural competences arising from them, and the possibility of their scientific evaluation.

Method. A non-systematic review of the literature based on the thematic selection of content and authors.

Results. The paper presents four basic theories and theoretical models of transcultural nursing which are well described in the literature on nursing, i.e. theories by M. Leininger, L. Purnell, J. Campinha-Bacote, J.N. Giger and R.E. Davidhizar, and their related cultural competences. The theoretical models constitute a foundation for the provision of nursing care to various populations, providing resources to overcome obstacles and challenges in situations where nurses care for patients with various cultural backgrounds. The article also presents the most important tools for the assessment of cultural competences based on the basic theoretical models of transcultural nursing.

Conclusions. Cultural competences in nursing set the direction for investment in self-development for both nurses-theorists and nursing practitioners. Understanding the components of cultural competences and their assessment plays an important and necessary role in the implementation of the concept of multiculturalism in nursing.