In this paper, we contribute to the debate on life-satisfaction gap between the citizens of post-socialist countries of Europe and Asia and their highly developed OECD counterparts, by examining the influence of de jure and de facto respect for empowerment rights. We mainly focus on the measure of rights protection called de jure - de facto rights protection gap. The empowerment rights included in the analysis are: the freedom of association, the freedom of expression, the freedom of religion, the freedom of foreign movement. Our results imply that government’s respect for these rights plays the role in diminishing happiness gap. We base the conclusions on an empirical study conducted on the sample of more than 59,000 observations. The data used for the study consist of World Values Survey database (waves 3–6) and a number of socio-economic indicators for 44 countries.
Which institutions may be important in terms of trade union density and how significant they are? Although the status of trade unions may be very different among states, unions are still a very meaningful component of labour markets. In this paper, we contribute to the debate about the institutions that may affect the outcome of trade unions in different legal systems. Firstly, we draw on the theoretical underpinnings of trade union activity and density. Then, we conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between trade union density in a particular country, country’s legal origins and government’s ideology. In this way, the paper enriches an underexploited niche in institutional research devoted to labour market issues.
Urban transport is considered the basis of properly functioning cities and their development. The main aim of the paper is to attempt the assessment of urban transport development in selected voivodeships (provinces) as a crucial factor of macro logistics. The research also aimed to identify the underdeveloped areas of urban transport in Poland as the basis for the implementation of support policy. The source of information in the investigation process was data drawn from the Central Statistical Office in Poland for 2013–2016. In the scope of dealing with the research problem, chosen classical and order multivariate statistical measures were implemented into the research process. Next, the taxonomic measures for the years of interest served as the basis for the construction of the total (general) synthetic measure applicable to the entire period. The main results and findings of the research indicate that the level of urban transport development is correlated with the whole transportation system which affects the socio-economic development of some regions of Poland. The research can lead to a better understanding of Polish urban transportation development in selected regions. Hence, the results can be helpful in the investment process and for shaping the right transportation policy to improve the use of financial resources.