Lifelong Learning for Inclusion - between Theory and Practice
In this study I present the conclusions of reports of the research teams which examined the policy range and analysed the activities regarding the inclusion of the socially deprived in rural areas, i.e. the British, Hungarian and Polish reports. When undertaking to find a reply to the question raised at the beginning of this article, I considered that the empirical basis would be quality material collected within the framework of focused group interviews1.
Although the focused group interviews were conducted according to a scenario which was prepared by the research teams, changes were possible in each country (although these changes did not affect the research issue). Apart from the main aim of the discussion, i.e. the diagnosis and analysis of both successes and failures of educational activity enabling social inclusion, these differences concerned the digressions concentrating on poverty and social exclusion in rural areas and problems connected with the implementation of inclusive policy - Hungary; considerations concerning the kind of help which should be provided to individuals and groups struggling with poverty in the countryside - Great Britain; methods evaluating the effectiveness of aid agencies acting in favour of social inclusion - Poland.
Representatives of government agencies playing a key role in the introduction of various forms of inclusive policy and representatives of institutions which provide direct help to the marginalised and those exposed to social marginalisation (which use various educational methods) took part in the research.
K-Ar Dating of Amphiboles from Andesite of Complex Dyke in Dubie (Southern Poland)
This study presents the results of radiometric K-Ar measurements on separated amphiboles from the andesite of the Dubie complex dyke. The data obtained cover the period of (291.3 ± 6.4) Ma, which corresponds to Carboniferous-Permian transition. The age is contemporaneous to the rhyodacitic and basaltoid volcanism of the Kraków region.
Anna Lewandowska, Joanna Witczak and Przemysław Kurczewski
A transition for a green, circular economy has encouraged companies to use new tools which boost sustainability. The purpose of this article is to discuss the consideration of life cycle thinking in green marketing as realized by companies. This theoretical-conceptual study aims to analyze life cycle assessment (LCA) as a useful tool for assessing green marketing goals. We also intend to highlight the importance of creating consumer trust for green business by displaying the green credentials of the products and activities. The article presents t he virtues and shortcomings of the LCA results relative to marketing management. As a result, the literature presents some gaps in terms of addressing life cycle thinking in marketing management and linking with consumer participation and trust.
Anna Pastuszak, Joanna Lewandowska, Krzysztof Buśko and Jadwiga Charzewska
The study is aimed at evaluation of the effect of regular physical activity on total and subcutaneous body fat and its distribution in boys aged 10 to 16 years. A three-year longitudinal study was carried out in order to monitor physical development in 237 boys from sports schools and regular schools in Warsaw, Poland. The boys were selected so that their rate of puberty changes was similar based on evaluation of voice and facial hair. The authors measured 5 skinfolds in the following sites: triceps, calf, subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds. The percentage fraction of total body fat in body mass was measured by means of Tanita TBF 300 electronic body composition analyser. A limb fat to trunk fat ratio (LF/TF) was also calculated in order to evaluate the type of distribution of subcutaneous fat in boys and monitor its changes as affected by regular high physical activity throughout puberty. Lower total body fat and subcutaneous fat in boys from sports schools was the effect of considerably higher physical activity. It was demonstrated that with some minimal values of total body fat and subcutaneous fat, physical activity did not cause a reduction in body fat. It was found that elevated physical activity in boys is conducive to development of a more limb-oriented (peripheral) fatness, which is more favourable to human health
Anna Pastuszak, Krzysztof Lisowski, Joanna Lewandowska and Krzysztof Buśko
Study aim: Systematic physical activity is an effective preventive measure that supports the preservation of physical health and psychological health. Three expressions employed that relate to the work carried out with MET-min/week as a measure of the level of total physical activity are intense activity, moderate activity, and walking. These were applied to students studying Physical Education. In the process, those who failed to meet the requirements for the ‘sufficient’ level according to IPAQ criteria and as recommended by the WHO were identified.
Material and methods: Research was conducted amongst 146 students: 50 from Charles University (CU) and 96 from the University of Physical Education in Warsaw (UPE). The total physical activity of students was determined according to the accepted standards (IPAQ). WHO recommendations concerning physical activity per week were converted into MET-min/week used by IPAQ as follows: physical activity needs to achieve at least 1200 MET-min/week to increase its effect on health.
Results: The study of Physical Education students at CU shows that they were significantly more active than their counterparts at UPE. Total physical activity per week as measured by IPAQ at CU was 9525.2 ± 4275.9 for men and 10964.3 ± 4092.0 MET-min/week for women. At UPE, this was 4034.3 ± 2617.8 for men and 2469.8 ± 1721.2 MET-min/week for women. The difference in total levels of physical activity carried out by these students was found to depend largely upon their involvement in championship sports. Inclusion of WHO recommendations in the assessment of physical activity of students increased the proportion of individuals with low activity levels, particularly in the group of not-training students.
Conclusions: It is recommended either that the WHO criterion “of activity level for health” be added to the IPAQ classification, thus toughening the requirements of the moderate level of activity, or, alternatively, an additional threshold of completing at least 1200 MET-min/week be applied, with the recommendation that this is achieved on a regular basis.
Joanna Lewandowska, Krzysztof Buśko, Anna Pastuszak and Katarzyna Boguszewska
Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N × m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (-0.69, -0.81, -0.71 and -0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo.
Ryszard Zarzeczny, Mariusz Kuberski, Agnieszka Deska, Dorota Zarzeczna, Katarzyna Rydz, Anna Lewandowska, Tomasz Bałchanowski and Janusz Bosiacki
Effects of 8-week training on aerobic capacity and swimming performance of boys aged 12 years
Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years.
Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n = 10) or free style (FS; n = 13). In all boys maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) was determined, and the CS and FS groups were subjected to 6 tests: swimming at 50 and 400 m distances (time recorded) and to 12-min swimming (distance recorded), all by free and classical styles pre- and post-training. From swimming times at 50 and 400 m distances the so-called critical swimming speed (CSS) was computed: CSS = (400 - 50) / (t400 - t50).
Results: No training-induced improvement in O2max was noted in any group. Yet, boys subjected to classical style training significantly (p<0.05) improved their free-style swimming velocity at CSS and at the 400-m distance by about 6%, and their heart rate following the 12-min test in classical style decreased by nearly 16% (p<0.001) compared with the pre-training values.
Conclusions: The 8-week training in given swimming style does not negatively affect the performance in other style than the trained one. This may be of importance in competitive training.
Aleksandra Świercz, Sylwia Lewandowska, Krzysztof Szaflik, Adam Oleś, Anna Piaseczna-Piotrowska and Maria Respondek Liberska
Shunt implantation in utero being a life-saving procedure, may be connected with a wide range of complications. One of them is catheter dislocation, a side effect which may impair the state of the fetus and child. We present a case of a boy with Congenital Adenomatoid Lung Malformation (CALM) type II. Invasive prenatal therapy, complicated by shunt migration did not influence our patient’s health. Moreover, the abnormally located shunt stayed within the child’s chest up to the age of 6 years. No symptoms linked to foreign body presence were observed. Although similar cases were published, we report a situation, in which the catheter was left in the patient’s body for 6 years, for the first time.
Łucja Dybowska-Sarapuk, Sławomir Rumiński, Grzegorz Wróblewski, Marcin Słoma, Anna Młożniak, Ilona Kalaszczyńska, Małgorzata Lewandowska-Szumieł and Małgorzata Jakubowska
The aim of the study was to produce heterophasic graphene nanoplatelets based formulation designed for ink-jet printing and biomedical applications. The compositions should meet two conditions: should be cytocompatible and have the rheological properties that allow to apply it with ink-jet printing technique. In view of the above conditions, the selection of suspensions components, such as binder, solvent and surfactants was performed. In the first stage of the research the homogeneity of the dispersion of nanoplatelets and their sedimentation behaviour in diverse solutions were tested. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of each ink on human mesenchymal stem cells was examined using the Alamar Blue Test. At the same time the rheology of the resulting suspensions was tested. As a result of these tests the best ink composition was elaborated: water, polyethylene glycol, graphene nanoplatelets and the surfactant from DuPont company.