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  • Author: Anna Kycko x
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Epidemiological and histopathological analysis of 40 apocrine sweat gland carcinomas in dogs: a retrospective study


Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs) are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

Material and Methods: The study involved 40 canine ASGC cases diagnosed in five national veterinary pathology laboratories. The material was processed according to routine histological methods.

Results: Histological types of the tumours involved simple and complex apocrine carcinoma of cystic/papillary (62.5%), solid (15%), and tubular type (12.5%), as well as apocrine ductal carcinoma (10%). The epidemiological analysis revealed peak incidence of the cancer in dogs between 8 and 14 years of age, with the most commonly affected sites being forelimbs and thorax. The highest number of the cancer cases was diagnosed in mixed breed dogs and German Shepherds; no sex predilection was noted.

Conclusion: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report recounting the study on canine malignant apocrine sweat gland tumours in Poland providing detailed phenotypical and histological data, which are otherwise rarely described in veterinary literature. This type of cancer appears to be diagnosed more frequently in dogs than in humans. Being an easily accessible material for research, canine ASGCs might serve as a relevant animal model for studies related to pathogenesis of sweat gland tumours.

Open access
Wild boar offal as a probable source of Aujeszky’s disease virus for hunting dogs in Poland


Introduction: Aujeszky’s disease (AD), most often related to infection of domestic and feral swine, may also concern other mammals, including dogs. The disease in carnivores, related to consumption of raw meat or offal contaminated with AD virus, is manifested by severe neurological disorders and inevitably leads to animal’s death.

Material and Methods: Karelian bear dog was euthanised due to nervous symptoms that started two days after participation in wild boar hunting. After exclusion of rabies the dog’s carcass was subjected to standard necropsy. Tissue samples were collected for histological examination. Samples of the brain were tested for ADV by real-time PCR and virus isolation. Samples of the liver were collected for toxicological examination.

Results: The presence of ADV was confirmed by real-time PCR and virus isolation. Toxicological examination revealed anticoagulant poisoning. This is the first case of Aujeszky’s disease (AD) in a hunting dog in Poland after exposure to ADV from offal of wild boar.

Conclusion: This infection should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of syndromes of neurological disorders in dogs. Since AD is found in both domestic pigs and wild boar in Poland, special care must be taken to prevent spread of infection to other species.

Open access
Evaluation of the possibility of C. burnetii transmission by the alimentary route in a guinea pig model



Q fever (coxiellosis) is an infectious disease of animals and humans, caused by.C. burnetii and widely distributed throughout the world. It is known that people and animals acquire the disease predominantly.via inhalation of infectious aerosols. The possibility of transmission of the pathogen by the alimentary route is still a matter of debate and remains controversial. Therefore the aim of this study was to fill the gaps in knowledge of oral transmission of.C. burnetii by conducting biological tests on the guinea pig model.

Material and Methods

Guinea pigs, divided into five groups comprising a negative control and four experimental groups, received specified concentrations of.C. burnetii per os. To determine the presence of specific antibodies, blood samples were tested using CFT. Also, internal organs collected during necropsy were screened by a real-time PCR targeting I.1111. Additionally, histopathological evaluation of the tissues was performed.


The presence of antibodies and pathogen DNA in caecum was confirmed in one guinea pig from experimental group IV..C. burnetii was also detected in testicular tissue collected from one animal of experimental group II.


The presence of pathogen DNA in the testicular tissue indicates that infection spreads haematogenously. In the majority of experimental animals specific antibodies and genetic material of.C. burnetii were not detected. This fact suggests that development of infection depends on many factors, such as animal immune status.

Open access
Magnesium supplements affect selected cadmium toxic actions and uptake of repeated doses of cadmium


The importance of magnesium supplements on organ retention of cadmium and allometric parameters after repeated exposure to cadmium chloride were studied in male Wistar rats. Magnesium chloride was given via drinking water (500 mg Mg/L) to rats exposed intragastrically to cadmium chloride (labelled with cadmium 109) at a daily dose corresponding to 25 mg/kg diet for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Supplements of magnesium temporarily decreased cadmium retention in the duodenum and liver. No significant differences in cadmium retention were evidenced in the kidneys and testicles. The supplements of magnesium also retain more of the body weight gains and restore the relative liver and testicle weight in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Comparison of the present results with earlier reports suggests a relationship between doses of magnesium and cadmium; higher doses of cadmium need more magnesium to overcome toxic action of the heavy metal.

Open access
Changes in blood parameters induced by experimental jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus infection


The aim of the study was to assess the changes of blood parameters in 12 three-week-old Polish Merino sheep subjected to experimental jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection.

Material and Methods: Haematological (WBC with leukocyte subpopulations: GRA, LYM, MID, and RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HGB, HCT, PLT, and MPV) and biochemical blood parameters (acid/base balance, cation/anion content, and gasometry) were determined in blood samples collected one month after JSRV infection, then at four-week intervals for five consecutive months.

Results: A decrease in RBC, HCT, MCV, PLT, MPV, and LYM values in comparison with controls was found in the last month of observation. On the other hand, at the same time, an increase in HGB, MCH, MCHC, WBC, MID, and GRA indices was observed. Moreover, at the end of experiment blood gasometric indices such as pCO2, HCO3, and tCO2, and Na and K ion concentrations were higher in the affected lambs than in the healthy animals. The pH values of the challenged animals exhibited less alkaline character than in the case of controls, which was associated with a decrease in O2% saturation. However, the majority of differences between JSRV inoculated and control groups was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The observed changes in the examined blood parameters can be considered as prodromal symptoms in the preclinical phase of adenocarcinoma development associated with JSRV infection.

Open access
Variability in spectral characteristics of trampled high-mountain grasslands


The goal of the paper is a presentation of field remote sensing methods for the analysis of the trampled plants of a highly protected mountain meadow ecosystem (M&B UNESCO Reserve and one of the most important Polish National Parks). The research area covers a core part of the Western Tatras - the Gąsienicowa Valley and Kasprowy Wierch summit, which are among the most visited destinations of the Polish Tatras. The research method is based on field hyperspectral measurements, using the ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer, on the dominant plant species of alpine swards. Sampling sites were located on trampled areas (next to trails) and reference plots, with the same species, but located more than 10 m from the trail (where the probability of trampling was very low, but the same composition of analysed plants). In each case, homogenous plots with a domination of one plant species were investigated. Based on the hyperspectral measurements, spectral characteristics as well as vegetation indices were analysed with the ANOVA statistical test. This indicated a varied resistance to trampling of the studied plant species. The analysis of vegetation indices enabled the selection of those groups which are the most useful for research into mountain vegetation condition: the broadband greenness group; the narrowband greenness group, measuring chlorophyll content and cell structure; and the canopy water content group. The results of the analyses show that vegetation of the High Tatras is characterised by optimal ranges of remote sensing indices. Only plants located nearest to the trails were in a worse condition (chlorophyll and water content was lower for the reference targets). These differences are statistically significant, but the measured values indicate a good condition of vegetation along trampled trails, within the range of optimum plant characteristics.

Open access
Histopathology of Internal Organs of Farm Animals Fed Genetically Modified Corn and Soybean Meal


Histopathological examination of liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, skeletal muscle, and bursa of Fabricius samples, collected from broiler chickens, laying hens, fattening pigs, and calves fed genetically modified corn MON 810 and soybean meal MON-40-3-2 (Roundup Ready, RR), was performed The examination showed no significant differences between the control animals fed diets containing no genetically modified feeds and animals fed genetically modified feeds. In some cases, congestion of parenchyma and focal lymphoid cell infiltrations were observed in all dietary groups, including controls, and therefore, it was assumed that the lesions were not associated with the feeding transgenic feeds.

Open access