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Open access

Anna Kozłowska

Abstract

Restaurants and other facilities providing catering services are an important part of hotels, can be their flagship product or make them unique. The obligation to provide restaurant services was imposed by the Ordinance of the Minister of Economy and Labour of 19th August 2004, concerning hotel and other facilities where hotel services are provided. Despite the dynamic development of gastronomy in the 21st century, running catering facilities in hotels is often an obligation which does not bring additional income.

The aim of the research is to present the gastronomic product in Lodz hotels, understood as all the services related to gastronomy that are provided. The analysis was conducted with respect to the brand of the facilities, references to local cuisine and the availability of hotel gastronomy to potential guests. The work also presents factors that may facilitate access to hotel gastronomy, breaking the stereotype of ‘available only for hotel guests’, as well as the advantages of using the hotel's gastronomic product in a proper way.

Open access

Anna Kowalczyk and Ewelina Kozłowska

Abstract

Introduction. In recent years, a decline in the level of physical activity has been observed all over the world. The number of professions where work is performed in a sitting position has increased. This has had many consequences for our health, the society, and the economy. The aim of this work was to determine which forms of physical activity are the most popular in administrative and office workers, depending on the motives which encourage them to be active. Material and methods. In 2014, a diagnostic survey was carried out among 937 persons in administrative and office positions using a questionnaire form designed by the authors. The study involved persons aged 18 to 65 years, and most of the respondents were female (n = 669). A qualitative analysis of the data was carried out using logistic regression, and the findings were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. Results. Changing the shape of one’s body was found to be the main determinant of using the gym among the respondents. Persons who jogged regularly, on the other hand, did so in order to increase physical fitness, and those who practised Nordic walking were motivated by the need to care for their health. As far as swimming is concerned, persons who had friends that engaged in this form of activity undertook it almost ten times more often than those who did not have such support from their family and friends (OR = 9.58). Respondents who desired to meet new people were over five times more likely to choose team games as an active form of spending their leisure time (OR = 5.21) than other respondents. Finally, those who engaged in physical activity in order to strengthen family bonds preferred playing and playing games with children in the open air. Conclusions. The predominant forms of physical activity which were regularly performed by the respondents were walking, cycling, and doing gymnastic exercise at home. The respondents were mainly motivated to pursue these activities due to their desire to relieve tension and stress, care for their health, and lose weight or maintain a healthy weight.

Open access

Anna Jóźwiak-Żurek, Monika Kozłowska and Katarzyna Nuc

Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Under Combined Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation and Allelopathy Stress

This study examined the effects of UV-B radiation and allelochemical stress induced by ferulic acid (FA) on the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) at metabolic and molecular levels in two cucumber genotypes differing in tolerance to cold and disease, in order to determine any interaction between stress effects and genotype response. Stresses were applied simultaneously, sequentially, and singly. In both genotypes, several days of UV radiation retarded growth up to 36%. The effect of FA was not significant. The response to a particular stress, including the effect on PAL activation, was enhanced by simultaneous application of the two stresses. PAL transcription was not correlated with the increase of PAL activity. Exposure to UV-B, FA, and combined UV-B and FA was detrimental to both genotypes but to different extents. The response was not correlated with the genotype of cold and disease sensitivity. PAL activity and its transcription seem to be involved in UV and allelochemical stress, but not related to the plants' tolerance of these stresses.

Open access

Anna Kozłowska, Katarzyna Stępniewska, Krzysztof Stępniewski and Przemysław Busse

Dynamics of Autumn Migration of the Acrocephalus Warblers Through the Polish Baltic Coast

We analyse in our paper the autumn migration of five warblers: i.e. the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Sedge Warbler (A. schoenobaenus), Marsh Warbler (A. palustris), Great Reed Warbler (A. arundinaceus) and Aquatic Warbler (A. paludicola), through the Polish Baltic coast. Data were collected in 1962-2005 at two stations: Bukowo-Kopań and Mierzeja Wiślana, as well as (for a comparison) at the Drużno station in 1990-2002 and 2003-2005. The most numerous species caught at all the stations was the Reed Warbler, whereas the Aquatic Warbler was caught only sporadically. Long-term number dynamics from Bukowo-Kopań and Mierzeja Wiślana showed considerable fluctuations for the first four species, which could have been influenced by weather or habitat changes, or they could have reflected long-term population cycles. Strong correlations between the numbers of species preferring reeds might indicate habitat basis of the fluctuations. Seasonal migration dynamics were also similar, with the peak of migration in mid-August. However, the dynamics from Drużno suggested that the real peak of migration occurred earlier. Median dates of the Reed Warbler migration at Bukowo-Kopań showed marked fluctuations, whereas at Mierzeja Wiślana they were delayed significantly; these changes were probably connected with climate changes.

Open access

Katarzyna Zawada, Mariola Kozłowska and Anna Żbikowska

Abstract

Cookies are a group of convenient food products that are popular among consumers. They may contain high amounts of fats, which can be prone to oxidation. To retard the oxidative deterioration, synthetic and natural antioxidants may be added. Herb and spice extracts can be sources of natural biologically active substances with antioxidant activity. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to monitor the lipid oxidation in cookies with rosemary and thyme extracts subjected to the storage in elevated temperature. It was shown that thyme extract can be used as a natural antioxidant source for the preparation of bakery products, while the rosemary extract should be used with care in fat-rich products exposed to high temperatures.

Open access

Anna Kwarciak-Kozłowska and Aleksandra Krzywicka

Abstract

The goal of this article was to compare the efficiency of Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction used for stabilised landfill leachate treatment. The mass ratio of COD:H2O2 was fixed to 1:2 for every stages. The dose of reagents (ferrous sulphate/hydrogen peroxide) was different and ranged from 0.1 to 0.5. To determine the efficiency of treatment, the BOD (biochemical oxygen demand COD (chemical oxygen demand), TOC (total organic carbon) , ammonia nitrogen and BOD/COD ratio was measured. The experiment was carried out under the following conditions: temperature was 25ºC, the initial pH was adjusted to 3.0. Every processes were lasting 60 minutes. The most appropriate dose of reagents was 0.25 (Fe2+/H2O2). It was found that the application of UV contributed to increase of COD, TOC and ammonia removal efficiencies by an average of 14%.

Open access

Anna Kwarciak-Kozłowska and Aleksandra Krzywicka

Abstract

The aim of the presented study was to determine the toxicity of wastewater from the production of coke. The wastewater was treated with advanced oxidation involving ultrasonic field with Fenton’s reagent (the amplitude was 61.5 μm and sonication time 8 min). Two doses of iron and four doses of hydrogen peroxide were used. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was proportional to the value of the chemical oxygen demand of raw wastewater, ranging from COD/H2O2 ratio of 1:2.5 to 1:20. Two tests were used to determine the toxicity (algae growth inhibition test and Lepidium test). It was found that more toxic to algae was wastewater treated by Fenton’s reagent containing a higher dose of iron. A similar inhibitory effect was observed on the germination of cress seeds.

Open access

Łukasz Kaczmarek, Anna Kozłowska, Michał Maksimczuk and Tomasz Wejrzanowski

Abstract

This paper presents for the first time X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) analysis as a technique for Silurian graptolite detection in rocks. The samples come from the Jantar Bituminous Claystones Member of the Opalino core, Baltic Basin, northern Poland. Images were obtained with spatial resolution of 25 μm, which enabled the authors to create a 3-D visualization and to calculate the ratio of fissure and graptolite volume to the total sample volume. A set of μCT slices was used to create a 3-D reconstruction of graptolite geometry. These μCT slices were processed to obtain a clearly visible image and the volume ratio. A copper X-ray source filter was used during exposure to reduce radiograph artifacts. Visualization of graptolite tubaria (rhabdosomes) enabled Demirastrites simulans to be identified. Numerical models of graptolites reveal promising applications for paleontological research and thus for the recognition and characterization of reservoir rocks.

Open access

Marlena Kycko, Bogdan Zagajewski and Anna Kozłowska

Abstract

The goal of the paper is a presentation of field remote sensing methods for the analysis of the trampled plants of a highly protected mountain meadow ecosystem (M&B UNESCO Reserve and one of the most important Polish National Parks). The research area covers a core part of the Western Tatras - the Gąsienicowa Valley and Kasprowy Wierch summit, which are among the most visited destinations of the Polish Tatras. The research method is based on field hyperspectral measurements, using the ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer, on the dominant plant species of alpine swards. Sampling sites were located on trampled areas (next to trails) and reference plots, with the same species, but located more than 10 m from the trail (where the probability of trampling was very low, but the same composition of analysed plants). In each case, homogenous plots with a domination of one plant species were investigated. Based on the hyperspectral measurements, spectral characteristics as well as vegetation indices were analysed with the ANOVA statistical test. This indicated a varied resistance to trampling of the studied plant species. The analysis of vegetation indices enabled the selection of those groups which are the most useful for research into mountain vegetation condition: the broadband greenness group; the narrowband greenness group, measuring chlorophyll content and cell structure; and the canopy water content group. The results of the analyses show that vegetation of the High Tatras is characterised by optimal ranges of remote sensing indices. Only plants located nearest to the trails were in a worse condition (chlorophyll and water content was lower for the reference targets). These differences are statistically significant, but the measured values indicate a good condition of vegetation along trampled trails, within the range of optimum plant characteristics.

Open access

Anna Kwarciak-Kozłowska, Lucyna Sławik-Dembiczak and Bartłomiej Bańka

Abstract

Phycoremediation is the use of algae for the removal or biotrans-formation of pollutants from wastewater. The study is a novel at-tempt to integrate nutrient (N and P) removal and some heavy met-als (iron, manganese and zinc) bioaccumulation from municipal wastewater using two microalgae species: Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus armatus. The Chlorella vulgaris showed higher re-moval of total nitrogen (TN) both in influent and effluent waste water than Scenedesmus armatus. Nevertheless, more than 51% of total phosphorus (TP) in effluent and 36% in influent wastewaters were removed by Scenedesmus armatus. More efficient microalga in heavy metal removal in influent wastewater was Scenedesmus armatus. The results showed that Chlorella vulgaris was appropriate for TN removal and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from effluent wastewater. Nevertheless, Scenedesmus armatus was highly pref-erable for heavy metals removal from influent wastewater.