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Anna Kołodziejczak

Abstract

The research conducted in the field of agricultural geography concerns both, the conditions and factors controlling the spatial structure of rural areas. It includes several lines of study, like an assessment of the natural environment for agricultural purposes, designing land-use maps, examining agricultural suburban zones, model approaches to agriculture, the spatial structure of agriculture, methods of the typology and regionalisation of agriculture, or multi- functionality of agriculture. They make use of a great variety of methods. This article presents methods employed in research on the spatial structure of agriculture. It defines the notion of a spatial structure, the consequences that follow from it, and methodological assumptions. The methods discussed embrace statistical methods of studying the spatial structure of agriculture, those used to determine elements predominating in this structure and to describe its heterogeneity, as well as mathematical and spatial-econometric models.

Open access

Anna Kołodziejczak and Tomasz Kossowski

Diversification of Farming Systems in Poland in the Years 2006-2009

The use of methods based on the Gini coefficient and the Lorenz curve in studies of the spatial structure of agriculture offers a great possibility of presenting changes in it and assessing their causes. They provided a basis for a research on changes in the farming systems employed in Polish agriculture over the years 2006-2009. The results confirm there to be a further diversification of this sector of the economy, and even if slower than in the previous years, it shows agriculture to keep adapting to natural and economic conditions.

Open access

Anna Kołodziejczak

Open access

Barbara Kołodziejczak, Magdalena Roszak, Wojciech Kowalewski and Anna Ren-Kurc

Abstract

This article presents an overview of generally available applications for creating multimedia and interactive educational materials, such as presentations, instructional videos, self-tests and interactive repetitions. With the use of the presented tools, pilot materials were developed to support the teaching of biostatistics at a medical university. The authors conducted surveys among students of faculties of medicine in order to evaluate the materials used in terms of quality and usefulness. The article presents the analysis of the results obtained.

Open access

Wojciech Kowalewski, Magdalena Roszak, Barbara Kołodziejczak and Anna Ren-Kurc

Abstract

This paper presents several applications of the dimensional analysis method to problems investigated in medical sciences. The method is used to analyze various complex processes without using formal laws governing the same. It is particularly suitable for a general analysis of fluid transfer (liquids and gases) in the human body. This paper mainly serves as an overview of selected applications, mostly those emerging in the recent years, and includes a discussion of the mathematical fundamentals of dimensional analysis together followed by its critical analysis. Containing detailed calculations of two examples, the paper also serves as training material in the area of the computational method of the dimensional analysis algorithm.

Open access

Bartosz Kowalski, Jacek Bierca, Jan Zmora, Małgorzata Kołodziejczak, Anna Kosim and Mariusz Frączek

Usefulness of Electrosurgical Techniques in Thyroid Gland Surgery

Wide propagation of new generation of electrosurgical devices such as bipolar vessel sealing systems (eg. Thermostapler® by EMED) enabled seamless closing of blood vessels with a diameter up to 7 mm while maintaining the necessary safety margin, as well as reducing the duration of the operation. We decided to verify these reports in our material.

Aim of the study was comparison of thyroid surgery performed with the electrocautery tool - Thermostapler ® by EMED with surgery using classic hemostasis technique to evaluate the operative time and complications in the form of bleeding, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, symptoms of hypoparathyroidism, and wound infection.

Material and methods. We retrospectively analyzed 256 patients operated in the Department of General and Proctological Surgery Solec Hospital in Warsaw due to inert thyroid goitre. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 126 patients operated in 2000, using classic techniques of hemostasis. While the second group consisted of 130 patients operated in 2007-2008 with Thermostapler®. We compared duration of surgery and the incidence of postoperative complications.

Results. The operative time was significantly shorter (average 18 minutes) in the second group of patients. We also recorded a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of complications in the group operated with Thermostapler.

Conclusions. Use of bipolar vessel sealing system in a decisive manner shortens the duration of operation. Use of bipolar vessel sealing system also enables a radical reduction in the incidence of complications rate such as bleeding, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, symptoms of hypoparathyroidism, and wound infection. In the future, similar studies should be performed to assess the real costs resulting from the use Thermostapler®.

Open access

Barbara Kołodziejczak, Magdalena Roszak, Anna Ren-Kurc, Andrzej Bręborowicz and Wojciech Kowalewski

Abstract

Enhancement of teaching using digital materials is rapidly entering the world of medical studies. Creation of a self-learning environment supported with self-tests is received well, or even enthusiastically, among students. On the other hand, there is a relatively large group of opponents among university teachers, who do not see the need for changes in teaching and testing methodology to be made. This attitude may be surfacing as a result of anxiety connected with implementing new technologies in teaching medical subjects, as well as the belief that implementing new technologies does not have an immediate effect on learning quality. The authors of this article attempt to demonstrate that a thoughtful choice of e-learning platform facilitates the process of implementing online learning and testing aids in medical faculties. The second part of the article presents initial results of studies concerning the efficiency of learning enhanced with self-tests. Our analysis details the results of exams in pathophysiology taken by students of the medical faculty at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. After the course, an evaluation survey was completed by 195 students concerning the quality of teaching with the use of the OLAT (Online Learning and Training) e-learning portal. It showed that students had positive attitudes toward learning with the use of online materials, particularly with regard to the use of self-tests, which allowed students to check their knowledge independently in exam-like conditions. The article that follows is targeted at those teachers who are interested in implementing a self-study and electronic knowledge evaluation environment for their courses, not necessarily in medical subjects.

Open access

Wojciech Kowalewski, Magdalena Roszak, Barbara Kołodziejczak, Anna Ren-Kurc and Andrzej Bręborowicz

Abstract

As defined by the National Institutes of Health: “Biomedical engineering integrates physical, chemical, mathematical, and computational sciences and engineering principles to study biology, medicine, behavior, and health”. Many issues in this area are closely related to fluid dynamics. This paper provides an overview of the basic concepts concerning Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications in medicine.

Open access

Piotr Leszczyński, Anna Charuta, Joanna Gotlib, Barbara Kołodziejczak, Magdalena Roszak and Tamara Zacharuk

Abstract

The process of continuing education of paramedics is based on gaining educational credits during five-year educational periods. One of the forms of self-improvement are Internet-based educational programs. The lack of regulations concerning the organizational and technical aspects of e-learning made the authors attempt to analyze the phenomenon. The aim of the article is to present an initial analysis of the role of online educational programs in comparison with other forms of professional training of paramedics. One in three respondents has recently used one of the methods of distance learning. Despite the low awareness of the effectiveness of e-learning, almost 70% of the interviewees expressed a positive opinion about it and over 50% were willing to use such forms in the future. The respondents preferred online trainings in the asynchronous version, containing audio-visual materials and providing the possibility to obtain a certificate issued to the participant after completing the course. The demand for topics in the area of professional training included mainly the fields of Drug Therapy, electrotherapy, electrocardiogram (ECG) evaluation, medical segregation, and help in delivery in pre-hospital conditions. Modern forms of distance learning do not make it possible to acquire practical skills, yet their role in professional training of paramedics is still significant. According to the authors, online educational programs constitute an effective complement to traditional training through the performance of tasks in a mixed form, known as blended-learning.

Open access

Sławomir Mrowiec, Magdalena Dobija, Joanna Nalewajka-Kołodziejczak, Anna Kasicka-Jonderko, Krzysztof Jonderko, Stanisław Nowak and Paweł Lampe

Gastric Emptying in Esophageal Substitutes

For patients undergoing esophagectomy, the stomach is the organ that is most commonly used to restore continuity in the gastrointestinal tract. As a consequence of changes in stomach shape and location, patients in the postoperative period usually experience disturbed motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract of variable intensity.

The aim of the study was to assess the motility of esophageal substitutes and the emptying rate of a narrowed stomach (in particular its prepyloric portion) using scintigraphy in patients undergoing esophageal resection compared to those in healthy controls.

Material and methods. Between 2000 and 2006, 297 patients (105 women, 192 men) underwent surgical treatment for esophageal cancer in the Clinic of Gastrointestinal Surgery. Ten patients (average age 59; range 54 to 67 years) who underwent an attempted curative esophageal resection were selected into the study group. Patients from this group underwent scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying between three to 11 months after the surgical procedure (an average 7 months). Furthermore, ten healthy volunteers (average age 28; range 19 to 43 years) constituted the control group.

Results. The average radiotracer retention after two hours was 44.7±6.5% in the study group and 51.1±7.4% (p>0.2) in the control group. Frequency of contractions of the whole prepyloric segment, as well as its distal fragment, in the subsequent periods of examination was comparable in both groups. Correlation among the frequency of contractions, contraction duration and duration of relaxation of the whole prepyloric segment and its distal fragment was high for the control group (correlation coefficients 0.71 p<0.001; 0.71 p=0; and 0.63 p=0, respectively). In the study group, correlation between the frequency of contractions and contraction duration was poor (coefficients of correlation 0.03 p>0.8 and -0.02 p>0.9), while correlation between duration of relaxation of the whole prepyloric segment and its distal fragment was moderate (coefficient of correlation 0.34 p>0.06).

Conclusions. Formation of a gastric substitute after its narrowing and denervation (truncal vagotomy) does not abolish gastric contractility. Frequency, amplitude, duration of contraction, and relaxation duration of the prepyloric portion of the ectopic substitute do not differ significantly from the patterns of motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract in healthy volunteers.