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Anna Grzegorczyk

Socio-spatial diversity of Marseille at the turn of the 21st century

In recent years, cities have significantly changed due to globalisation processes that influence also social aspects of their functioning. Hence, immigrant inflows are observed, social segregation and polarisation significantly increase, and city space is transformed by gentrification processes. Social conflicts seem to be an integral part of the functioning of contemporary cities, what can be seen on the example of French cities. The aim of the article is to show socio-spatial diversity of Marseille, the second largest city of France, with the largest port serving as an economic and immigrant gateway to the country, and as a consequence, making the city prone to socio-spatial restructuring. The study involves the analysis of the demographic and socio-economic diversity of the city's ZUS (zones urbaines sensibles) - districts delimitated by local councils as objectives of urban policy due to social problems concentrated there. They are concentrated in the ‘triangle of poverty’ of Marseille. The districts highly populated by immigrants represent at the same time the highest level of deprivation. This residential segregation involves mainly Maghrebians. These foreigners overrepresented in the lowest social classes and in the poorest districts are an ethnoclass prone to ghettoisation. However, in contrast to other French cities, social conflicts that burst into riots of the banlieue were almost absent in Marseille in 2005. The reasons for this are the historically determined central location of the deprived districts and failure of the gentrification process, and the policy of local authorities.

Open access

Anna Grzegorczyk

Abstract

The aim of the article is to examine the level of diversity and complexity of the Honduras settlement and transport networks and to identify processes responsible for the development of such networks. According to the analysis, the networks disproportion is not high in Honduras but it can increase in the future due to the attraction of the core areas, emergence of growth poles, migrations and concentration of international trade. The settlement and transport networks are hierarchised.

Open access

Anna Grzegorczyk

Abstract

Although the socio-spatial aspect of cities in the globalisation era has gained a new dimension, it cannot be explained by the globalisation process alone. The article presents the problem of social and ethnic segregation in Île-de-France between 1999 and 2009. Socio-economic and demographic data are used to measure indices of segregation and the description of characteristic chosen districts to show its spatial inertia. The analysis revealed a higher degree of social segregation in the entire Paris metropolitan region than in the city of Paris itself. The upper class is the most segregated group, followed by foreigners, immigrants and the lower class. The pattern emphasises the important role of autosegregation factors and functions. It is observed that a constant division into homogenous parts exists in the prestigious and affluent western districts and the impoverished immigrant north-eastern districts. Socio-spatial tendencies reveal the growing importance of the upper class.

Open access

Anna Grzegorczyk and Barbara Jaczewska

Abstract

Social segregation is a subject common in contemporary studies of metropolitan areas. Until recently, studies of segregation focused on the distribution of ethnic groups, immigrants, and the poor. Today, they also cover additional indicators such as demographic properties, education, and affiliation with social and professional categories, which can also serve to determine the causes of the segregation (including the self-segregation of the rich). This article aims to point out the measures of segregation that present the segregation levels in the most complete manner, along with their application in the context of three European metropolitan areas: Warsaw, Berlin, and Paris. The first part of the article is a review of the existing approaches to segregation measures, followed by the selection of research method, presentation of the analysis’ results, and evaluation of the applied methods; presenting the opportunities and limitations in research of the social segregation phenomenon.

Open access

Barbara Jaczewska and Anna Grzegorczyk

Abstract

The aim of this article is to answer two questions concerning the scale and the pattern of residential segregation in Warsaw at the local level and the character of contemporary processes accompanying and modifying this phenomenon. While examining residential segregation we have applied a multidimensional approach to underline the complex nature of this phenomenon. We have focused on data concerning different demographic and socio-economic categories. Furthermore we indicate and describe three socio-spatial, contemporary processes that have accompanied an increase in social inequalities in Warsaw (the creation of enclaves of poverty and wealth and the process of gentrification). The research reveals increasing social inequalities at the local level that began in the socialist era and have strengthened during the transformation period, as well as the stability of the socio-spatial pattern in selected districts that influence their local specifics.

Open access

Anna Grzegorczyk and Barbara Jaczewska

Abstract

Warsaw and its metropolitan area seem an interesting testing ground for research on the phenomenon of residential segregation in the context of the evolution of housing policy, since the city has been subject to significant changes as a result of historical events. Each of these contributed to alterations in the level and the character of residential segregation. The goal of this article is to answer the following question: Was the changing housing policy in Warsaw and the surrounding metropolitan area during the transformation period and afterwards accompanied by a modification of the segregation structure and what differences can be noticed in the whole of the metropolitan area and in the city itself?

Open access

Jaroslaw Widelski, Agnieszka Grzegorczyk, Anna Malm, Ioanna Chinou and Kazimierz Głowniak

Abstract

Plants of the Apiaceae family usually contain coumarins. These are used worldwide in traditional medicine, as well as in modern therapeutics. The aim of our study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of four extracts (methanolic and petroleum ether extracts) obtained from two Apiaceae species: Seseli devenyense (fruits) and Peucedanum luxurians (herb).

The activity of the investigated extracts was tested against 7 strains of Gram+ bacteria, and 7 strains of Gram-, as well as three of yeast. The results of this show that the best activity of such extracts (specifically, by way of petroleum ether) was seen as being against Staphylococcus aureus strains.

Open access

Joanna Gotlib, Dariusz Białoszewski, Anna Cabak, Katarzyna Barczyk, Andrzej Bugajski, Joanna Grzegorczyk, Wojciech Kułak, Piotr Majcher, Olga Nowotny-Czupryna, Maciej Płaszewski, Katarzyna Prokopowicz and Janusz Sierdziński

Postawy studentów fizjoterapii wobec grupy zawodowej oraz towarzystw naukowych związanych z fizjoterapią i rehabilitacją

Cel pracy: celem pracy była analiza postrzegania postaw studentów fizjoterapii uczelni medycznych (PM), uczelni o profilu wychowanie fizyczne (PWF) oraz pozostałych uczelni (IP) wobec własnej grupy zawodowej oraz towarzystw naukowych związanych z fizjoterapią i rehabilitacją. Materiał i metody: badaniami objęto łącznie 593 studentóow 10 polskich uczelni: 4 PM, 2 PWF i 4 IP. Badania zostały przeprowadzone w marcu i kwietniu 2009 roku wśród studentów III roku. Udział w badaniu był dobrowolny. Narzędziem badawczym był anonimowy, autorski, kwestionariusz zawierający łącznie 88 pytań. Do analizy prezentowanych w niniejszej pracy wyników wybrano 5 pytań. Analiza statystyczna: test Kruskalla-Wallisa i test Chi-kwadrat (X2); p < 0,05, STATISTICA 8.0, licencja WUM. Wyniki: w badanej grupie dominowała opinia, że grupa zawodowa fizjoterapeutów w Polsce jest podzielona: 41% PM, 44% PWF i 39% IP (p = NS), jednakże duża grupa badanych nie miała na ten temat zdania: 41% PM, 40% PWF i 42% IP (p = NS). 25% badanej grupy studentów znało Polskie Towarzystwo Fizjoterapii jako organizację naukową zrzeszającą fizjoterapeutów: 33% PM, 35% PWF oraz 16% IP. Tylko 3% wszystkich studentóow potrafiło wymienić również Polskie Towarzystwo Rehabilitacji. Studenci PM i PWF istotnie częściej (p < 0,001) niż studenci IP znali towarzystwa naukowe. Najbardziej znanym czasopismem naukowym z dziedziny fizjoterapii i rehabilitacji była w badanej grupie studentóow Fizjoterapia Polska - 34% oraz Fizjoterapia 32%. Tylko 11% studentów znało tytuł: Postępy Rehabilitacji. Wniosek: organizacje zawodowe i naukowe zrzeszające fizjoterapeutów powinny podjąć działania promocyjne wśród studentóow, zachęcając tę grupę do czynnego udziału w swych pracach, co wpłynęłoby na ściślejszą integrację grupy zawodowej, która pozwoliłaby z kolei na skuteczniejszą walkę o własne interesy zawodowe.