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  • Author: Anna Digka x
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Background/Aim: The aim of root canal treatment is the thorough cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canals. Variations in root canal anatomy increase the difficulty of the root canal treatment and therefore the possibility of failure. The mandibular premolars often present complex anatomy and the existence of mandibular second premolars with three root canals is very scarce. This report presents the successful endodontic management of four mandibular second premolars with three root canals.

Cases Report: In all cases working length was estimated using the working length radiograph and an apex locator. Canal orifices were enlarged with Gates-Glidden drills and manual instrumentation performed with Stainless Steel reamers and Hedstroem files, using either step-back or crown-down technique. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 2.5% was used as an irrigant. Root canal obturation were then performed using the cold lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Roth’s 801 canal sealer. The cases were scheduled for clinical and radiographic follow-up examination. Clinically in all follow-up examinations the teeth were asymptomatic. For the three cases with periapical lesions, post treatment radiographs, demonstrated periapical healing. Additionally, in the case without periapical lesion, the 9 months recall radiograph revealed healthy periapical conditions.

Conclusions: Mandibular premolars should never be underestimated and the clinician should always be alerted for anatomic variations.


The purpose of this study was the evaluation of 3 different histological methods for studying pulpal blood vessels in combination with 2 types of confocal microscope and computer assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction. 10 human, healthy, free of restorations or caries teeth that were extracted for orthodontic reasons were used. From these teeth, the pulp tissues of 5 were removed, fixed in formalin solution, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Serial cross sections 5μm thick were taken from 3 of the above mentioned pulpal tissues and stained with CD34 according to the immunohistochemical ABC technique, while the rest 2 were stained with CD34 and Cy5 by means of immunofluorescence after serial cross sectioning of 10μm. 5 of the 10 teeth were fixed, decalcified, serial cross sectioned (30μm thickness) and stained with eosin. The physical sections were examined under 2 types of confocal laser microscope. Serial images were taken for each section, alignment of the images was followed and finally 3-dimensional reconstructions of the pulpal vessels were achieved.

The combined use of immunofluorescence, confocal microscope and automatic segmentation proved to be a useful method for the detailed study of pulpal vasculature. The above method provides deep knowledge of the form and spatial relationship even of the smallest pulpal blood vessels with neighbouring structures like odontoblasts, which are essential for the fully understanding of their role and function within the dental pulp.