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Open access

Katarzyna Witek, Krzysztof Mazurek, Anna Mróz, Anna Czajkowska and Anna Kęska


Study aim: the aim of study was assessment somatic features and selected cardio-ventilatory indices in men above 50 years old with different physical activity levels.

Materials and methods: the study included 55 men on average aged 54.5 ± 4.32, classified to the trained group (T), n = 33, and not trained group (NT), n = 22. Total physical activity was assessed using the SDPAR Questionnaire. Measurements: anthropometric indices, ventilatory indices and VO2 peak, hemodynamic indices and fatigue using Borg scale during exercise maximal test.

Results: daily energy expenditures for sport and recreation differ significantly between T and NT groups, 6.82 METs vs. 0.2 METs, respectively (p < 0.001). Men in T and NT groups significantly differ in somatic features, and cardio-pulmonary indices including: time of physical tests effort (s) 1103 ± 193 vs. 681 ± 328; max speed (km/h) 14 ± 1.5 vs. 10 ± 1.4, VE peak 135.9 ± 21.17 l/min vs. 112.9 ± 21.49 l/min; VO2 peak 61.8 ± 8.83 ml/kg/min vs. 41.9 ± 8.55 ml/kg/min; HR rest (beat/min) 69 ± 16.95 vs. 83 ± 14.48; HR peak (beat/min) 171 ± 1.23 vs. 163 ± 15.28; SV peak (ml) 162 ± 24.23 vs. 135 ± 33.22; CO peak 27.4 ± 4,3 vs. 21.6 ± 5.17.

Conclusions: men aged 50+ who practice running training differ favourably and significantly from men not trained in anthropometric as well as cardio-ventilatory indices. Significant correlations were found between DEE and FAT(%), VO2 peak (ml/kg/min), SV peak (ml) and COpeak (l/min) as well between CO peak and VO2peak was record linear relationship (r = 0.56).

Open access

Anna Czajkowska, Grażyna Lutosławska, Krzysztof Mazurek, Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz and Piotr Żmijewski

The index of insulin resistance (FIRI) is not associated with plasma homocysteine levels in young, non-obese healthy men and women

Study aim: To evaluate plasma homocysteine (Hcy), insulin and glucose levels in blood and the insulin resistance index (FIRI) in young, healthy non-obese men and women.

Material and methods: A total of 152 young, healthy, non-obese (BMI<30) men (n = 81) and women (n = 71) participated in the study. The following substances were assayed in blood using commercial kits: total plasma homocysteine by fluorescence polarisation immunoassay, plasma glucose - by the oxidase method, and insulin by radioimmunoassay using monoclonal antibodies. From the latter two, the index of insulin resistance (FIRI) was computed.

Results: Mean plasma homocysteine concentration in men was significantly (p<0.001) higher than in women (10.3 ± 3.0 and 8.4 ± 2.4 μmol/l, respectively) and that of FIRI was significantly (p<0.001) lower than in women (1.310 ± 0.483 and 1.437 ± 0.420, respectively). Neither in men nor in women were plasma homocysteine concentrations correlated with FIRI.

Conclusions: Although no association between circulating homocysteine and FIRI was found in young, non-obese men and women, the existence of such association in Type 2 diabetes cannot be ruled out.

Open access

Anna Czajkowska, Krzysztof Mazurek, Grażyna Lutosławska and Piotr Żmijewski

Anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices and aerobic capacity of male and female students

Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions.

Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was evaluated by Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire. Anthropometric (body height and mass, body fat content, BMI and WHR) and physiological indices (heart rate, blood pressure, O2max, CO2 and minute ventilation) were recorded. Body fat content was determined using a BIA device; respiratory data were recorded in a cycle ergometer test. The subjects were classified by their O2max values into ‘high’ or ‘low’ categories, the cut-off values of lower and upper quartiles serving as criteria.

Results: Male and female students expended 10.2 ± 4.6 and 8.4 ± 5.3 kcal/kg/day, respectively, the O2max amounting to 48.4 ± 6.4 and 41.1 ± 4.7 ml/kg/min, respectively. Subjects having high O2max had significantly higher energy expenditure on physical activities, fat-free mass, body water content and maximal ventilation, and lower body mass, BMI, body fat content, resting heart rate and diastolic pressure.

Conclusions: When investigating into the relationships between physical activity and physiological features, the latter ought to be related to O2max rather than to energy expenditure which may depend on other than physiological variables.

Open access

Agnieszka Zdrodowska, Ida Wiszomirska, Agnieszka Niemierzycka, Anna Czajkowska, Andrzej Magiera and Milena Słoń


Introduction: Morphological and functional changes in cells, tissues and organs causing characteristic for old age reduction of the efficiency of all organs, and therefore decrease in the level of physical fitness. To determine its level, to find areas of weakness and select optimal physical activity programs that will improve the quality of life and health of older people it is necessary to multi-dimensional assess the level of physical fitness.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the fitness level of students of the University of the Third Age in Warsaw Almamer with Fullerton Functional Fitness Test in relation to American standards.

Material and methods: The study was conducted on a 40-person group of students of the University of Third Age Almamer in Warsaw, at the age of 60-70 years. Mobility assessment was based on a comparison of results obtained by the Fullerton Functional Fitness Test with standards developed by the authors test for the U.S. population.

Results: In all trials conducted with Fullerton Test women got positive results after normalization to the mean and standard deviation of the U.S. population peers. The greatest variation among the test subjects compared to American standards test result was observed in flexion of the forearm. Conclusions: The tested listeners of UTW characterized a good level of physical fitness Fullerton The test evaluated in relation to American standards. According to the authors, developing standards for the test used in Polish conditions would contribute to a more reliable assessment of people over 60 years old.

Open access

Anna Czajkowska, Krzysztof Mazurek, Andrzej Wiśniewski, Anna Kęska, Joanna Tkaczyk, Krzysztof Krawczyk, Magdalena Pałka and Tomasz Mazurek


Study aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between low birth mass and concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a cardiovascular risk factor in young women with various levels of physical activity.

Materials and methods: 102 female students aged 19.7 ± 0.8 (18.6-23.0) were included. The study group was divided according to the declared physical activity: high physical activity (HPA, n = 69) and low physical activity (LPA, n = 33). Anthropometric indices were measured: body mass, height, hip and waist circumference. hsCRP levels were obtained from venous blood samples. Birth body mass (BBM) and birth height were collected from medical documentation.

Results: Women with low BBM and LPA had a significantly higher concentration of hsCRP than women with low BBM and HPA, as well as women with normal BBM.

Conclusions: Low birth mass together with low physical activity is a strong predictor of raised concentration of hsCRP, which correlates with an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Regular physical activity in women with low birth mass may prevent an increased hsCRP concentration, and as a result decrease the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

Open access

Andrzej Wiśniewski, Wojciech Jarosz, Anna Czajkowska, Anna Mróz, Marcin Smolarczyk, Andrzej Magiera, Przemysław Kowalczyk, Dagmara Zimmerman-Rysz and Marek Kowalczyk


Few studies have been published in Poland concerning body dimensions of firefighters from the State Fire Service although this knowledge is needed for e.g. development of personal protective equipment. The aim of the study was to evaluate body dimensions and weight-to-height ratio in firefighters from the State Fire Service. Using the anthropological procedures, body mass (BM) and body height (BH) were examined in 178 men at the chronological age (CA) of 19.5 to 53 years who were rescuers from the national rescue and fire brigades of the State Fire Service. The study participants were divided into three categories of CA: up to 25 years, between 24 and 44 years, and over 44 years. The results were compared to population standards. It was found that BH of the youngest rescuers was significantly higher (0.05) than in other study participants. Based on the standardized values of BM and BMI, population of firefighters aged over 25 years was found to be characterized by overweight and, in certain cases, even by obesity. The excess level of body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kgm2) was found in nearly 60% of study participants, with half of the group classified as overweight (n=31, BMI ranging from 25 to 29.9 kg/m2), and 10% classified as obese. Due to the worrying high percentage of cases of excess body mass in firefighters from the State Fire Service, it was found that it is recommended to evaluate the relationships between body height and mass on regular basis during periodical obligatory tests of physical fitness of rescuers from the State Fire Service and to increase the frequency and duration of training sessions.

Open access

Krzysztof Mazurek, Piotr Zmijewski, Hubert Makaruk, Anna Mróz, Anna Czajkowska, Katarzyna Witek, Sławomir Bodasiński and Patrycja Lipińska


The aim of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and jump training on physical performance in young male handball players. Twenty-six young male handball players were divided into two sub-groups to perform a five-week pre-season training programme supplemented with two ground-reactive protocols with an equal number of jumping exercises referred as to ground contacts: plyometric training (PLY; n = 14) and standard jump training (CON; n = 12). Before and after training, repeated sprint ability (RSA), jumping ability (JA), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and aerobic power at the anaerobic threshold (PAT) were measured. A two-factor analysis revealed significant time effects with improvements in fat mass (p = 0.012), maximal power during the incremental cycling test (p = 0.001) and PAT (p < 0.001), power decline (PDEC) and maximal power (Pmax) in the 5th repetition (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The training-induced changes in absolute and relative peak power in the RSA test and absolute VO2max approached significance (p = 0.06, p = 0.053 and p = 0.06). No intervention time × exercise protocol effects were observed for any indices of JA, RSA and aerobic capacity. A five-week pre-season conditioning programme supplemented with only 15 sessions of plyometric exercise did not induce any additional benefits, compared to a matched format of standard jump training, in terms of improving jumping performance and maximal power in the RSA test. Aerobic capacity and the fatigue index in RSA were maintained under these two training conditions.