Forest Return on an Abandoned Field - Secondary Succession Under Monitored Conditions
The secondary succession pattern observed on an arable field abandoned since 1974 in Tilio-Carpinetum habitat is described and disscussed. Results obtained during 36 years of study confirm that succession on an abandoned field leads from a typical segetal community to the formation of a juvenile treestand composed of pioneer species. Our study supports the view that succession is a process which is largely dependent on the initial conditions and surrounding vegetation. The results indicate that some species can modify the course of this process, accelerating or slowing it down. Limitations of the method and prognosis of future vegetation development are also discussed.
Changing Land Use in Recent Decades and its Impact on Plant Cover in Agricultural and Forest Landscapes in Poland
The objective of this paper is to present the effects of general changes in land use in recent decades on plant cover structure in Poland. The paper is focused on spontaneous processes that occur in agricultural and forest areas being no longer under human pressure. Studies carried out in different geobotanical regions of Poland demonstrated that the directions and range of dynamic changes in plant cover are similar across the country. The formation of secondary forest phytocenoses, on the lands delivered from human activity is a common ecological process observed today in the agricultural landscape. In the dynamics of forest vegetation the basic process is regeneration after ceased use, and the introduction of legal protection.
The article presents the results of nature monitoring in synanthropic habitats. It shows the organizational aspects of monitoring, a survey procedure, including its assessment for use in synanthropic habitats, and the key findings of the research, including the evaluation of the conservation status of habitats covered by the monitoring and influencing factors’ effects. Observations of segetal and ruderal habitats were carried out in 2013 within the Kampinos National Park, according to the recommendations specified in the State Environmental Monitoring Programme, with specific adjustment to the monitored habitats. We used, for example, modified indices for specific structures and functions, e.g., by introducing the index of “archaeophytes”, which was also adopted as a cardinal index for synanthropic habitats. The obtained results show the detailed information, collected during monitoring, on the current status of synanthropic habitats. They allowed to evaluate conservation status, threats and conservation prospects for these habitats. This is the first proposal for the standardized monitoring of synanthropic habitats in Poland.
Studies aimed at the identification of the range and method of spread of alien plant species in settlement areas in Kampinos National Park (KNP) and its immediate vicinity were carried out in years 2012-2014. Special emphasis was put on surveying the sites of invasive alien species (IAS), and diagnosing potential threats posed to the natural and semi-natural vegetation of the national park by the IAS present in rural areas. We found 53 alien vascular plant species, including 40 invasive taxa which may potentially pose a threat to the ecosystems of KNP. Species encroaching from settlement areas to semi-natural and natural communities included: Bidens frondosa, Echinocystis lobata, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Lupinus polyphyllus, Reunoutria japonica and Solidago gigantea. Most of them were species from the highest invasiveness (IV and III) classes in Poland. Similarity analysis carried out for all investigated localities with regard to all alien species, and only for invasive ones showed a clear division into separate groups: villages within the boundaries of the national park and villages outside the park.