The paper aims to find what determines the choice of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) between public debt (corporate bonds) and private debt (bank loans). For this purpose, we estimate logistic regression models and panel models of corporate borrowing determinants to compare the impact of enterprise characteristics on financing with the use of corporate bonds or bank loans. In this study, we are interested in explanatory variables that explain the role of transparency measured by the level of information disclosure; and a risk proxy of the variability of operational cash flows and investment risk (retrieved from generalised auto-regressive conditional heteroscedasticity [GARCH] models estimated on companies’ stocks [shares] trading on the WSE).
The paper aims to find the relationship between corporate expenditures on R&D and tax burdens comparing German with French R&D incentives. We use the OLS method for the financial and patent cross-sectional data retrieved from the Amadeus database. The results confirm that firms with higher tax spread (the difference between the nominal and effective tax rates) spend less on R&D. These are in line with findings of a positive relationship between corporate R&D investment and tax burdens. Thus, firms that invest in R&D more pay higher taxes. However, they are less profitable as the return on R&D investment is visible only in the long run. German corporate expenditures on R&D are significantly sensitive to internal funds (proxied by cash flow) and depend on debt, contrary to French. The results indicate that the French firm's age (a phase of life cycle) has a significant impact on spending on R&D compared to German. Whereas in both countries, corporate expenditures on R&D are sensitive to the number of obtained patents. The capability of reducing the level of tax burdens below the nominal tax rate in the case of older German firms stimulates them to increase their R&D expenditures. However, German firms can decrease tax due to the use of R&D grants (revenues without taxation) in the absence of other tax incentives related to R&D.
In this article, we study the substitution between leasing and bank loans in financing the investment of small companies. The analysis is based on financial information about Polish companies listed on NewConnect, which used financial leasing in the period of 2012–2016. We argue that leasing and bank loans are the substitute in financing the investment of small companies. We estimate the probability of financial leasing and its size using the tobit and logit models. We find that financial leasing and bank loan, for Polish small companies, are complementarity. Our empirical results indicate that financial leasing and bank loans are complementary sources of financing investment in fixed assets. Also the higher the usage of financial leasing, the higher the likelihood that the enterprise is indebted because of long-term bank loan – complementarity.
An effective knowledge-based economy requires regular cooperation between science and business. This is possible thanks to enterprises that create and implement innovations The paper focuses on the recognition of R&D expenditure. This aims to verify if firms with a scientist on their board are more likely to invest in the R&D. We conduct a tobit panel analysis of over 18,000 Polish private firms combined with data on patents and scientists employed at universities. The findings show that firms with scientists on the supervisory board are likely to invest more in R&D. However, these investment in R&D of firms with a scientist on the board are financial constraint. Their growth depends on access to finance. Therefore, institutions in Poland should support and promote cooperation between science and business, aiming for the realization of the implementation research. This approach requires updated regulations in the accounting area relating to the recognition of R&D inputs and outcomes.
The article presents motives and purposes of provision of loans by non-financial enterprises. Moreover, it describes how provision of loans influences both the internal and market situation of lenders who are not listed on the stock exchange. We point out effects of provision of loans by non-financial enterprises, while, based on literature review, we signal the market reaction (positive and negative) to information about lending activities of non-financial enterprises. On the one hand, the phenomenon of providing loans by non-financial enterprises may be considered positive, as it provides financing for entities with limited access to bank loans or provides liquidity management in a business group. On the other hand, it may lower the viability and amount of investment of companies providing loans. Loans obtained from outside the business group enable borrowers and the business group to use a tax shield, yet they increase the bankruptcy costs and limit the investment of lenders. An empirical study was carried out with the use of a panel approach (generalized method of moments GMM). The research sample includes 31 075 observations from the financial statements of limited liability companies and unlisted joint-stock companies for the years 2003-2014.