The removal of nitrogen compounds in constructed wetlands depends on various physical, chemical and biomechanical factors as well as on conditions of the environment. The paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the depositing of nitrogen at HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) construcred wetland. The results of the substrate showed that the highest contents of nitrogen existed in the surface soil layer up to 20 cm of the depth. Nitrogen accumulation decreased in the deposit with depth, and in the direction of the wastewater flow.
This paper presents the results of the research work related to the removal efficiency from wastewater organic pollutants and suspended solids at HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetland. The average effectiveness defined as loss of value COD in wastewater has reached 77%, for BOD5 - 80% and TOC - 82%. The effect of seasonal temperature changes and the period of plant vegetation and rest on the effectiveness of wastewater treatment were also analyzed. The results of the presented research showed a decrease in the efficiency of removing organic pollutants from wastewater and suspended solids in the autumn and winter. During the vegetation the object in Małyszyn has been characterized by the effectiveness of wastewater treatment at the level of 78% for COD, 82% for BOD5, and in the non-vegetation period the effectiveness has decreased up to 75% for COD and 74% for BOD5. During the plants growth the total suspension was removed in 88%, whereas during the plants rest efficiency of removing lowered to 69%.
The article presents physiochemical parameter changes in water supply network of Zielona Góra. On the basis of the obtained test results, the impact of prolonged retention of water in the network on its quality was determined, at the measuring points located on the territory of Zielona Góra.
It was shown that together with an increase in distance of measuring points from Water Treatment Plant, content of mainly iron, turbidity and colour increased too. In the results analysis, it was determined that retention time and water distribution are the most significant factors in the network contributing to deterioration of water quality at measuring points.
The article assesses the physical and chemical parameters of drinking water before and after the modernization of the technological system of water treatment station in Drzenin, Poland. The extension and modernization of the existing installation was necessary due to the poor technical condition of the devices, increasing demand for water in recent years and the periodic exceeding of the permissible values of water quality indicators.
Analysis of physical and chemical properties of drinking water after the modernization of the system showed the effectiveness of the water purification processes used and the correct selection of the technological line. The obtained water quality parameters were in accordance with the Regulation of the Minister of Health on the quality of water intended for human consumption (Journal of Laws of 2017, item 2294).
The article characterises most frequently selected by investors individual mechanical and biological sewage treatment systems. On the basis of gathered information and technical documentation, technical and technological analysis of the devices was conducted. Assess factors include technology, structure, workflow, control, exploitation conditions, and sewage treatment system effectiveness. On the basis of conducted analysis, limited possibility of using activated sludge wastewater treatment in a flow system was established due to the difficulty of stabilizing the whole system. An optimal solution for individual wastewater treatment system are solutions of activated sludge technology in SBR system and hybrid technologies.
The article analyzes the effectiveness of individual Actibloc wastewater treatment plants (produced by Sotralentz) working in the technology of low-rate activated sludge in the Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) system. The assessment of the effectiveness of household wastewater treatment plants was made on the basis of pollutants: BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The research objects were four household sewage treatment plants located in: Lubań, Kłębanowice, Stara Rzeka and Kościan. The efficiency of removing pollutants in the examined facilities was in the range of: BOD5 92.2 ÷ 97.2%, COD 82.6 ÷ 89.9%, total suspended solids 90.2 ÷ 96.2%, total nitrogen 50.8 ÷ 83.1%, total phosphorus 46.5 ÷ 73.6%. The treated wastewater met the requirements set out in the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment on the conditions to be met when discharging sewage into water or soil, and on substances particularly harmful to the aquatic environment (Journal of Laws 2014, item 1800) in terms of indicators such as BOD5, COD, total suspended solids and total nitrogen. The effectiveness of phosphorus removal in the studied treatment plants was much lower.
The paper presents results of studies concerning the designation of COD fraction in the raw, mechanically treated and biologically treated wastewater. The test object was a wastewater treatment plant with the output of over 20,000 PE. The results were compared with data received in the ASM models. During investigation following fractions of COD were determined: dissolved non-biodegradable SI, dissolved easily biodegradable SS, in organic suspension slowly degradable XS and in organic suspension non-biodegradable XI. Methodology for determining the COD fraction was based on the guidelines ATV-A 131. The real percentage of each fraction in total COD in raw wastewater are different from data received in ASM models.
The paper presents the results of studies concerning the designation of COD fraction in raw wastewater. The research was conducted in four municipal mechanical-biological sewage treatment plants and one industrial sewage treatment plant. The following fractions of COD were determined: non-biodegradable (inert) soluble SI, biodegradable soluble fraction SS, particulate slowly degradable XS and particulate non-biodegradable XI. The methodology for determining the COD fraction was based on the ATV-A131 guidelines and Łomotowski-Szpindor methodology. The real concentration of fractions in raw wastewater and the percentage of each fraction in total COD are different from data reported in the literature.