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Anil Kumar and Harish Kumar

Stability Studies of Torque Transducers

The present paper discusses the stability studies carried out on a small number of torque transducers over the years with capacities ranging from 10 Nm to 1000 Nm. The torque transducers have been calibrated using the torque standard machine based on the written standard calibration procedure. The study reveals that the uncertainty of measurement of torque transducers has been varying appreciably and it is more for lower range. Besides, the deviation from their average values has also been studied and found to be varying through the years.

Open access

Rajesh Kumar, Harish Kumar, Anil Kumar and Vikram

Long Term Uncertainty Investigations of 1 MN Force Calibration Machine at NPL, India (NPLI)

The present paper is an attempt to study the long term uncertainty of 1 MN hydraulic multiplication system (HMS) force calibration machine (FCM) at the National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI), which is used for calibration of the force measuring instruments in the range of 100 kN - 1 MN. The 1 MN HMS FCM was installed at NPLI in 1993 and was built on the principle of hydraulic amplifications of dead weights. The best measurement capability (BMC) of the machine is ± 0.025% (k = 2) and it is traceable to national standards by means of precision force transfer standards (FTS). The present study discusses the uncertainty variations of the 1 MN HMS FCM over the years and describes the other parameters in detail, too. The 1 MN HMS FCM was calibrated in the years 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 and the results have been reported.

Open access

Harish Kumar, Anil Kumar and Poonam Yadav

Improved Performance of 50 kN Dead Weight Force Machine using Automation as a Tool

Continuously growing technologies and increasing quality requirements have exerted thrust to the metrological institutes to maintain a high level of calibration and measurement capabilities. Force, being very vital in various engineering and non - engineering applications, is measured by force transducers. Deviations in the values observed and mentioned in the calibration certificate for force transducers may primarily be due to the creep, time loading effect and temperature effect if not properly compensated. Beside these factors, machine interaction, parasitic components etc. pertaining to the quality of the force standard machine used for calibration also contribute to the deviations. An attempt has been made by National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI) to automate the 50 kN dead weight force machine to minimize the influence of factors other than the factors related to the machine itself. The calibration of force transducers is carried out as per the standard calibration procedure based on standard ISO 376-2004 using the automated 50 kN dead weight force machine (cmc ± 0.003% (k=2)) under similar conditions both in manual mode and automatic mode. The metrological characterization shows improved metrological results for the force transducers when the 50 kN dead weight force machine is used in automatic mode as compared to the manual mode.

Open access

Anil Kumar Singh

Abstract

Annotation interfaces for parallel corpora which fit in well with other tools can be very useful. We describe a set of annotation interfaces which fulfill this criterion. This set includes a sentence alignment interface, two different word or word group alignment interfaces and an initial version of a parallel syntactic annotation alignment interface. These tools can be used for manual alignment, or they can be used to correct automatic alignments. Manual alignment can be performed in combination with certain kinds of linguistic annotation. Most of these interfaces use a representation called the Shakti Standard Format that has been found to be very robust and has been used for large and successful projects. It ties together the different interfaces, so that the data created by them is portable across all tools which support this representation. The existence of a query language for data stored in this representation makes it possible to build tools that allow easy search and modification of annotated parallel data.

Open access

Kanakapura Basavaiah, Urdigere Anil Kumar and Kalsang Tharpa

Gradient HPLC analysis of raloxifene hydrochloride and its application to drug quality control

A rapid, sensitive and selective method for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX) in pure drug and in tablets was developed using gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The devised method involved separation of RLX on a reversed phase Hypersil ODS column and determination with UV detection at 284 nm. The standard curve was linear (R = 0.999) over the concentration range of 50--600 μg mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.04 μg mL-1 and a quantification limit of 0.16 μg mL-1. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the method were established according to the current ICH guidelines. Intra-day RSD values at three QC levels (250, 450 and 550 μg mL-1) were 0.2--0.5%, based on the peak area. The intra-day relative error (e r) was between 0.2 and 0.5%. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of RLX in tablets and the results were statistically compared with those obtained by a literature method. Accuracy, evaluated by means of the spike recovery method, was the excellent with percent recovery in the range 97.7--103.2 with precision in the range 1.6--2.2%. No interference was observed from the co-formulated substances. The method was economical in terms of the time taken and the amount of solvent used.

Open access

Naveen Garg, Anil Kumar and Sagar Maji

Abstract

The paper presents an extensive review investigating the practical aspects related to the use of single- number ratings used in describing the sound insulation performance of partition wall panels and practical complications encountered in precise measurements in extensive frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 kHz. SWOT analysis of various single number ratings is described. A laboratory investigation on a double wall partition panel combination revealed the significant dependence of STC rating on transmission loss at 125 Hz attributed to 8 dB rule. An investigation conducted on devising alternative spectrums of aircraft noise, traffic noise, vehicular horn noise and elevated metro train noise as an extension to ISO 717-1 Ctr for ascertaining the sound insulation properties of materials exclusively towards these noise sources revealed that the single-number rating Rw + Ctr calculated using ISO 717-1 Ctr gives the minimum sound insulation, when compared with Rw + Cx calculated using the alternative spectrums of aircraft noise, traffic noise, etc., which means that material provides a higher sound insulation to the other noise sources. It is also observed that spectrum adaptation term Cx calculated using the spectrum of noise sources having high sound pressure levels in lower frequencies decreases as compared to ISO 717-1 Ctr owing to significant dependence of Ctr at lower frequencies.

Open access

Naveen Garg, Anil Kumar and Sagar Maji

Abstract

The paper presents application of Taguchi method in optimizing the sound transmission loss through sandwich gypsum constructions and those comprising of masonry concrete blocks and gypsum boards in order to investigate the relative influence of the various parameters affecting the sound transmission loss. The application of Taguchi method for optimizing sound transmission loss has been rarely reported. The present work uses the results analytically predicted on “Insul” software for various sandwich material configurations as desired by each experimental run in an L8 orthogonal array. The relative importance of the parameters on single-number rating, Rw (C, Ctr) is evaluated in terms of percentage contribution using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA method reveals that type of studs, steel stud frame and number of gypsum layers attached are the key factors controlling the sound transmission loss characteristics of sandwich multi-layered constructions.

Open access

Manish Jaiswal, Somil Jaiswal, Bal Krishna Ojha, Sunil Kumar Singh, Anil Chandra and Chhitij Srivastava

Abstract

Introduction: Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan is the kite flying festival in India. The festival marks the end of winter and the beginning of summer as the sun moves to the Tropic of Cancer bringing with it longer and warmer days. But it turns into a difficult day for those who are hospitalised after suffering from kite flying related injuries. Aims & Objectives: The objective of this cross sectional study was to review the demographics, causes injury, severity, treatment and outcome of traumatic brain injuries in victims of this kite flying festival who were admitted in department of Neurosurgery on the occasion this year in January. Patients & Methods: A total of 46 traumatic brain injured patients was admitted under Neurosurgery Services that day, out of which 18 cases were related to kite flying related injury. Data of these 18 patients were analysed and outcome were measured at discharge. Result: kite flying festival related neurotrauma increase 39% more emergency admission burden as compared to routine days in neuro-emergency ward. Most common cause of head injury among them was fall from roof. Majority of them had mild head injury. Associated injuries to other part of body were present in 46% patients. Conclusion: Children were most affected due to unsupervised kite flying on roof and road side catching of kites. Depressed fracture was commonest type of traumatic brain injury. Strict attention to safety measures and parental supervision while flying kites can avoid many preventable injuries to life.

Open access

Somnath Sharma, Bal Krishan Ojha, Anil Chandra, Sunil Kumar Singh, Chhitij Srivastava, Preeti Agarwal and Kalpana Sharma

Abstract

Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (P.M.A) are new class of Pilocytic Astrocytoma (P.A.) which typically have their origin in hypothalamus and chiasmatic region. There are very few case reports of PMAs arising from cerebellum. Their imaging features are similar to PA but they behave more aggressively than PA. The authors report a case of 10 year old male child who presented with right cerebellar tumour diagnosed as PMA on histopathology.

Open access

V.A. Kiran Kumar, N.A. Sai Kiran, V. Anil Kumar, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Amrita Ghosh, Ranabir Pal, Venkata Ramya Bola and Amit Agrawal

Abstract

Background: Intervention to reduce intracranial pressure using External Ventricular Drain (EVD) is a common life saving measure in a neurosurgery intensive care unit(ICU). Objective: The present study was undertaken to assess the outcome of patients who underwent external ventricular drainage for intraventricular hemorrhage(IVH). Methods: The available data of the patients who underwent placement of external ventricular drain from February 2012 to May 2016 for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) at Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, was retrieved from the hospital case records and analyzed. Results: Total of 69 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 53.7 ±11.6 years. Clinical presentation included altered sensorium in 66 patients (96%), hemiparesis in 62 patients (90%) , vomiting in 40 patients (58%) and seizures in 9 patients (13%). Fifty two patients (75%) were known hypertensives and 10 patients (15%) were diabetic. Past history of smoking was recorded in 16(23%) patients and alcohol intake in 17 patients (25%). GCS at the time of admission was 3-8 (low) in 39 patients (57%), 9-12 in 23 patients(33%) and 13-15 in 7 patients (10%). At the time of admission, 60 patients ( 87%) had diastolic blood pressure more than 90 mmHg, 63 patients (91%) had systolic blood pressure more than 140 mmHg. Major site of hemorrhage was basal ganglia in 24 (35%), thalamus in 13 (19%), cerebellum in 5 (7%), brain stem in 3, frontal/temporal in 2 patients. SAH with IVH was noted in 12 patients (17%) and only IVH was noted in 10 patients (14%). Mean duration of external ventricular drainage was 4.6+1.7 days (Range 1-9 days). Mean hospital stay was 11.3±7.5 days and mean ICU stay was 8+5.4 days. Thirty eight patients (55%) died during hospital stay. At the time of discharge, poor out come (Glagow out come score 1-3) was noted in 52 patients (75%) and good out come (Glagow out come score-4,5) was noted in 17 patients. Among various parameters analyzed , poor GCS (3-8) at admission, history of smoking and alcohol intake were found to correlate significantly with poor outcome. None of the other factors like old age, site of bleed, pupillary asymmetry at admission, high blood pressure at admission, past history of hypertension and diabetes were found to correlate with poor outcome. Conclusions: Majority of the patients with intracranial hematomas with intraventricular extension presented in poor neurological condition (GCS= 3-8). Poor neurological condition at the time of admission, past history of smoking and alcohol intake were associated with poor outcome.