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Open access

Piotr Żukrowski, Wojciech Kielan, Zygmunt Grzebieniak, Jerzy Rudnicki, Robert Tarnawa, Anil Agrawal, Tomasz Bąk and Monika Knakiewicz

Splenectomy in Patients with Hematological Disorders - Our Experience

The aim of the study. Retrospective analysis of indications for splenectomy in hematological diseases, positive effect of this operation and correlations between objective prognostic factors and good response to splenectomy in patients with different hematological indications for splenectomy.

Material and methods. 98 adult patients with hematological disorders, who were splenectomised in the years 1994 - 2004. We evaluated the effects of splenectomy in patients with hematological diseases as defined by patient documentation from the 2nd Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Department of Hematology and Hematological Ambulance and the questionnaires that patients completed by themselves.

Results. The beneficial effect of splenectomy was observed in the majority of cases of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (41 of 53 patients), acquired hemolytic anemia (2 of 3 patients) and hereditary spherocytosis (8 of 9 patients). Surgery can provide a high frequency of durable response for adult patients with benign hematological disorders. In malignant hematological diseases, splenectomy eliminates consequences of hypersplenism or splenomegaly. Splenectomy in patients with malignant hematological disorders can improve their condition and relieve symptoms of hypersplenism and splenomegaly to improve their quality of life. There were early complications in 11 patients (11.3%). Mortality was 2%. Late complications appeared in 24 patients out of 96 patients, who survived the perioperative period. The most common late complication was moderate respiratory infections.

Conclusions. Splenectomy is the most common operation in patients with hematological disorders. Indications for splenectomy have been hindered by the lack of any objective prognostic factors of good postoperative response. Nevertheless, the effect of splenectomy is positive in many patients with benign and malignant hematological diseases.

Open access

Piotr Żukrowski, Wojciech Kielan, Zygmunt Grzebieniak, Jerzy Rudnicki, Robert Tarnawa, Anil Agrawal, Tomasz Bąk and Monika Knakiewicz

Analysis of Selected Clinical and Laboratory Parameters in Patients with Splenectomy Complications Due to Hematological Disorders

The aim of the study was to investigate the role of certain clinical characteristics and laboratory examination results as prognostic factors for complications after splenectomy in patients with hematological disorders.

Material and methods. Ninety-eight adult patients with hematological disorders who underwent splenectomy in our department between years of 1994 and 2004. A retrospective analysis of the medical records from patients who underwent splenectomy was conducted; we divided the patients into 6 groups with various postoperative complications; patients without complications after splenectomy were the control group (the seventh group). Then, we compared patients from groups 1 - 6 with patients from the control group (group 7) before and after splenectomy with regard to various parameters including age, sex, presence of splenomegaly or accessory spleen, the operation's duration, hemoglobin level, number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and plateletes, levels of protein and fibrinogen, activity of prothrombin, INR, APTT, TT, proteinogram and levels of IgG, IgM and IgA.

Results. We found that postoperative complications, especially early complications, were more common in groups with malignant hematological complications and in older patients. Infection complications appear more often in men than in women with benign hematological disorders. The sustained platelet level elevation after splenectomy is positively associated with a higher number of thrombotic complications. Also, a lower level of gamma globulin, IgG and IgM after splenectomy correlated with a higher number of infection complications.

Conclusions. Splenectomy in patients with hematological disorders is burdened with small risks of postoperative complications. Some clinical and laboratory parameters can be used to select the group of patients with higher risks of complications, but there remains a lack of objective prognostic factors which are sure in every clinical situation.

Open access

Andrzej Hap, Wojciech Kielan, Maciej Siewiński, Robert Tarnawa, Anil Agrawal, Julia Rudno-Rudzińska, Wojciech Hap and Zygmunt Grzebieniak

Inhibition of Selected Enzymes with Specific Inhibitors in the Tissue Homogenates from Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Large intestine malignancy is the second most common malignancy and second leading cause of cancer mortality in Poland. This is related to late detection of these lesions, e.g. due to lack of effective screening tests. Lesions found by a surgeon are clinically advanced, making the treatment often ineffective and sometimes even completely impossible. Discovery of a substance that would be able to stop key processes for the development of malignancy could change such situation. Activity of certain enzymes was found to increase in malignant cells and invasion of malignancy could be triggered by inadequate amount of endogenous inhibitors of these enzymes in the surrounding healthy tissues. Inhibitors identical with that produced in human cells were found in egg whites.

The aim of the study was to determine ability of cystatin isolated from egg whites to inhibit activity of cathepsin B and L.

Material and methods. Immunohistochemistry and histology of tissue specimen collected from malignant lesions resected from 60 patients diagnosed with large intestine adenocarcinoma, who underwent surgical treatment in 2nd Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Wrocław between 2007 and 2009.

Results. Differences were fund between health tissues, margins and center of the malignant lesions with regard to amount and distribution of stained cathepsin B - cystatin complexes. The above mentioned inhibitors were able to inhibit 90% of primary activity of cathepsin B and L in malignant tissues.

Conclusions. Cystatins obtained from egg whites could be used as substances supporting anti-cancer therapy in the future.

Open access

V.A. Kiran Kumar, N.A. Sai Kiran, V. Anil Kumar, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Amrita Ghosh, Ranabir Pal, Venkata Ramya Bola and Amit Agrawal


Background: Intervention to reduce intracranial pressure using External Ventricular Drain (EVD) is a common life saving measure in a neurosurgery intensive care unit(ICU). Objective: The present study was undertaken to assess the outcome of patients who underwent external ventricular drainage for intraventricular hemorrhage(IVH). Methods: The available data of the patients who underwent placement of external ventricular drain from February 2012 to May 2016 for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) at Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, was retrieved from the hospital case records and analyzed. Results: Total of 69 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 53.7 ±11.6 years. Clinical presentation included altered sensorium in 66 patients (96%), hemiparesis in 62 patients (90%) , vomiting in 40 patients (58%) and seizures in 9 patients (13%). Fifty two patients (75%) were known hypertensives and 10 patients (15%) were diabetic. Past history of smoking was recorded in 16(23%) patients and alcohol intake in 17 patients (25%). GCS at the time of admission was 3-8 (low) in 39 patients (57%), 9-12 in 23 patients(33%) and 13-15 in 7 patients (10%). At the time of admission, 60 patients ( 87%) had diastolic blood pressure more than 90 mmHg, 63 patients (91%) had systolic blood pressure more than 140 mmHg. Major site of hemorrhage was basal ganglia in 24 (35%), thalamus in 13 (19%), cerebellum in 5 (7%), brain stem in 3, frontal/temporal in 2 patients. SAH with IVH was noted in 12 patients (17%) and only IVH was noted in 10 patients (14%). Mean duration of external ventricular drainage was 4.6+1.7 days (Range 1-9 days). Mean hospital stay was 11.3±7.5 days and mean ICU stay was 8+5.4 days. Thirty eight patients (55%) died during hospital stay. At the time of discharge, poor out come (Glagow out come score 1-3) was noted in 52 patients (75%) and good out come (Glagow out come score-4,5) was noted in 17 patients. Among various parameters analyzed , poor GCS (3-8) at admission, history of smoking and alcohol intake were found to correlate significantly with poor outcome. None of the other factors like old age, site of bleed, pupillary asymmetry at admission, high blood pressure at admission, past history of hypertension and diabetes were found to correlate with poor outcome. Conclusions: Majority of the patients with intracranial hematomas with intraventricular extension presented in poor neurological condition (GCS= 3-8). Poor neurological condition at the time of admission, past history of smoking and alcohol intake were associated with poor outcome.

Open access

Anil Kumar, V. Umamaheswara Reddy, Vasuki Pratyusha, Ashok Munivenkatappa, Ranabir Pal, Kishore V. Hegde, Ranjan Jena, S. Satish Kumar and Amit Agrawal


Background: Acute Computerized Tomography (CT) characteristics are used widely and most accepted for prediction of outcome among Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The commonly available and simple combinations of existing and unexplored CT parameters may be more useful in prediction of outcome. The present study explores commonly available CT characteristics by possible combinations based on anatomical basics.

Methods: Abnormal CT sign was considered with any cranial lesion. Based on anatomical locations of cortical lobes, nine possibilities were made that include individual and combinations of mentioned lobes. The laterality was either right or left or bilateral. The outcome was favourable or unfavourable based on discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Binary logistic regression was used to predict outcome.

Results: 452 patients were recruited in the present study. There was significant risk of unfavourable outcome among patients with location of Sub Dural Haemorrhage (SDH) in Parietal + Temporal region (OR=10,p<0.001); Cerebral Contusion in Temporal region (OR=3,p=0.03), Frontal + Temporal region(OR=16,P=0.001), Frontal + Parietal + Temporal region (OR=18.7,p<0.001). Patients with four abnormal CT signs had worst outcome. Presence of SDH on right side (OR=4.5,p<0.001) and bilateral Cerebral Contusion (OR=4.5,p=0.003) was at the risk of unfavourable outcome.

Conclusion: The present study based on anatomical classification has shown that location and laterality of lesion can significantly predict TBI outcome.