Ownership and lease of agricultural real estate are the basic legal titles to run and organize agricultural farms in Poland. For some years now, the practical significance of lease in rural relations has been growing, which is primarily connected with the activities of the Agricultural Property Agency. Currently, lease is the basic form of management of agricultural lands of the State Treasury. The aim of the paper was to present the basic principles concerning the acquisition and lease of agricultural real estate in Poland and to assess whether the legal regulations favour the formation and expansion of agricultural farms in this country, especially family ones. It should be noted that according to the Article 23 of the Polish Constitution, the basis of the agricultural system is the family farm. The family farm, in turn, is run by an individual farmer. The paper covers also the issue of acquisition and lease of agricultural real estate by foreigners.