Tooth size, being the effect of interaction of genetic and prenatal factors, could be of importance in interpreting the multifactor causes of cleft lip/palate. Publications indicating decreased tooth parameters, no dental differences, or larger dimensions of teeth in cleft lip/palate patients. Researchers report mostly mesiodistal (MD) measurements of maxillary (affected) teeth. There is a lack of data for buccolingual (BL) diameters. Both MD and BL parameters have influence on the planning and performance of orthodontic treatment. The aim of this paper was to assess differences in mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions in Polish children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in comparison to patients without oral clefts. A total of 1883 permanent teeth, 1182 teeth of UCLP patients and 701 teeth of healthy participants were analyzed. Tooth diameters were performed using an orthodontic cast of dentition with a digital odontometer. The greatest anomalies were found in both maxillary canines and consisted of their reduced mesiodistal dimension and increased buccolingual dimension, resulting in a pathologically high crown shape index (BL/MD). Conclusion can be drawn that unilateral cleft lip and palate is a condition that causes morphological disturbances of varying severity in most mandibular and maxillary teeth both on the cleft and non-cleft sides.
The goal of the study was verification of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms as significant risk factors of obesity in the population of Polish children. Body mass index (BMI) and DNA were evaluated, where DNA was extracted from saliva, collected from 213 children at the age of 6-13 years. DNA was genotyped by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and HRM (high resolution melting) techniques, as well as by direct sequencing. Three (3) FTO polymorphisms were identified: rs9939609, rs9926289 and rs76804286, the last polymorphism located between the first two. For the first time, absolute linkage disequilibrium (LD) of FTO gene rs9939609 and rs9926289 polymorphisms was confirmed in data for the Polish population (D’=1, r2=1). The lack of a complete dependence among the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FTO gene was a consequence of the concurrence of homozygotes with minor alleles A of rs9939609+rs9926289 of FTO (AA+AA) with major alleles of rs76804286 (GG). A case-control association analysis for BMI in obese children (n=51), as compared to normal-weight children (n=162), was based on the effects of genotypes homozygous for the minor alleles of the studied SNPs in recessive and codominant inheritance models (assuming an independent effect of each genotype). A comparison of children with normal BMI with obese children indicate a strong co-dominant effect of a genotype in homozygotes of minor alleles (AA+AA) of completely linked rs9939609+rs9926289 (OR at age 8.89 ± 1.54 years=4.87, 95% CI 1.81-13.12, p=0.002). An almost five-fold increase of obesity risk in the examined children indicates that the genetic factors, associated with excessive body weight gain, exert stronger effects in the early period of ontogenetic development vs. puberty and adulthood. The role of genetic factors in predisposing to obesity declines with age
The effects of psychological stress, gender and age on hair and skin pigmentation levels were evaluated in the reported study. The material included Polish high-school and university students aged 18-22 (in the age range 17.50-22.49). All subjects who had sunbathed or used tanning beds or lamps, skin tanning agents, tanning extenders and/or medical agents affecting skin pigmentation during the 60 days preceding the beginning of the study were excluded. The use of hormonal contraceptives within a month prior to the study was also an excluding factor. Stress levels were evaluated by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in the Polish adaptation, while hair and skin pigmentation levels were assessed with a dermaspectrometer (Cortex Technology®, Denmark, 2007). The study was carried out with the exclusion of the summer period. Skin pigmentation was evaluated in 395 subjects (264 women and 131 men). Hair pigmentation was analyzed in a smaller group of 351 subjects (223 women and 128 men), as some had had their hair dyed within 12 months prior to the study while in some others the hair was too short to be correctly measured.
Regardless of their age, the studied women felt much more stress related to their life situation and were characterized by stronger skin pigmentation than the examined men. No sex differences were identified with regard to hair pigmentation. In the studied period of ontogenesis (18-22 years of age), hair pigmentation levels increased with age, while skin melanization remained stable. Disregarding the effects of age and sex, the level of perceived stress was negatively correlated with skin pigmentation levels; no such relationship was found for hair melanization.
This aims of this research are to determine if the 2D:4D digit ratio is related to subjective pain experience during tattooing and to examine gender differences therein. The study involved 43 male and 28 female Polish adults recruited from two tattoo salons in Wroclaw and Leszno in Western Poland. These subjects were asked if they felt pain during their tattooing and answers were recorded as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. The ventral surface lengths of the second and fourth digits of each hand were measured, and analysis of variance was performed to assess significant differences in the 2D:4D ratios of right and left hands and twohand averages between genders and the Yes/ No groups reporting pain experience. Results revealed that although the digit ratios for females had systematically higher values than those in males, differences were not statistically significant. Both sex and subjective pain feeling were significantly associated with 2D:4D ratio in both hands and their average values, while sex and pain experience were independently associated with digit ratio. Subjects who felt pain during tattooing had a significantly lower digit ratio. In conclusion, the study did not support the hypothesis that the lower masculine 2D:4D ratio is associated with a higher pain threshold. Prenatal sex hormonal exposure generating the gender dimorphic 2D:4D index may not predispose the actual feeling of all kinds of pain; in this instance, not in pain associated with tattooing.
The objective of the study was to verify whether or not FTO rs9939609, rs9926289 and TMEM18 rs4854344, rs6548238, rs2867125 variants are important risk factors for overweight and/or obesity in Polish children aged 6-16 (n=283). FTO rs 9939609 and rs9926289 exhibited a strong codominant obesity-predisposing effect of genotypes homozygous for minor alleles (OR=5.42, 95% CI: 2.04-14.39, p=0.0006). The important finding of the study is increased risk of overweight (OR=5.03, 95% CI: 1.15-21.93, p=0.0306) in individuals homozygous for the minor alleles rs4854344, rs6548238 and rs2867125 in the recessive inheritance model, while no other significant associations between TMEM18 variants and risk of obesity were found. Given the identified interaction TMEM18 genotype × BMI category (p=0.0077), it seems that the effect of homozygous for the minor alleles may be compared to a “weight guard”, which significantly increases the risk of overweight, but not of obesity, because it promotes weight gain only up to the threshold of obesity. Conclusion: The proposed hypothetical effect (“weight guard”) of homozygous for the minor alleles in the TMEM18 based on a rather small sample is a possible explanation of the effects of minor alleles, which minimize the risk of obesity.