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  • Author: Aneta Demerdzieva x
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Biofeedback Training for Peak Performance in Sport - Case Study

The use of peripheral biofeedback and neurofeedback is growing rapidly in sport psychology. The aim is to lower competition stress, anxiety, and muscle tension.

We present a case report concerned to biofeedback training in an athlete in preparation to Olympic Game competition. It is the first case in our region to prepare athlete with biofeedback modalities. Obtained results are very encouraging.


For achieving the good health and wellbeing for all children, the main role of pediatrician and other health care professionals is to follow their development.

We implemented developmental monitoring for 465 children at the age of 12 - 60 months, in the period of 4 years (2016 - 2019), using standard algorithm in which start is always with child history. It should be comprehensive, and must include a detailed prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history.

Obtained results showed that 16.13% of participants have some serious illness in family history, and the same percentage (16.13%) manifested serious perinatal problems which imposed the support in intensive care unit. Breastfeed are 49,46 % of children. Only 7,53 % are not completely vaccinated.

About the parameters for the development, we obtained that 11,83 % were not walking at the time of the assessment, and 65,81 % were not speaking. Toilet control was negative, and in 75,27 % they still were wearing diapers.

Allergic manifestations at the time when the assessment was done is present in 8,60%. Finally, serious illness in child past history was positive in 19.35 % of evaluated sample.

We concluded that a good history is needed and indispensable in the assessment process, particularly when exogenous causes are identified as the risk for the developmental delay. Obtained positive answers are directory for further investigation as well to correlate risk-consequences relationship.


Although modern therapeutic procedures have considerably improved the survival and the quality of life of children with cystic fibrosis, the relevant psychological aspects have been still insufficiently considered similarly to the other chronic diseases.

The aim of this research was to evaluate the emotional health: psychological characteristics and adjustment of CF children and their family coping.

The study comprises 25 CF children, mean age 13.13 ± 2.29 years (23 boys and only 2 girls), selected from total 60 actually treated children for CF. Children were examined in the period of improved health conditions (without superinfection, wheezing or gastrointestinal problems). Obtained results are compared with a control group of 25 healthy children of the same age, selected by random from primary schools.

The psychometric instruments used were: Kohs Design Test, Child Behavior Checklist, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, General Anxiety Scale, Emotional Profile Index, MMPI-201 and Human Values Test, together with two projective tests of drawing (Machover and Corman).

The unexpected good psychological results obtained from psychometric instruments could be explained by the fact that CF children accept the real situation and express vivacity. However, their deep feelings of fear impose on them high level of self-control and resistance. The results obtained for CBCL presented CF children as immature, with accentuated aggressiveness in interpersonal relations. The most important problem is related to the delay of puberty changes, leading to low self-esteem.

Generally, family members cope relatively well with the disease in children, in spite to discrepancies in mother/child reports for child psychopathology. Divorces also occurred in some families.

Psychological support for both, children and family members are necessary. The need for a holistic approach in the assessment and treatment, including biofeedback techniques was pointed out.


Introduction: Brain rate is parameter correlated to brain electric and metabolic activity.

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the results obtained for brain rate parameter as an indicator for general mental arousal in anxious patients and to compare them with results of healthy young people matched in age and gender, as well as with anorectic and hyperactive children.

Material and Methods: The diagnosis for all examinees was made according two statistic manuals (DMSIV- R and ICD-10), medical history, neuropsychological assessment, biochemical analysis and QEEG. In this study we examined the spectra power of the brain waves through quantified EEG (QEEG). The obtained results were exported to brain rate software and then calculated for each region separately. The QEEG spectra power data and the brain rate data were analyzed using Statistica software.

Results: According to sagittal and lateral topography maximal values of brain rate parameter were obtained in group of healthy individuals and in group of anorectic patients. The lowest results were obtained in group of hyperactive children for all three regions.

Conclusions: The general conclusion will be that pathological conditions in childhood, analyzed in this research, can be defined as conditions of hypoarausal and this can be specific sign of brain dysfunction.


Frontal alpha asymmetry (the relative difference in power between two signals in different hemispheres) has been suggested as biomarker for anxiety. The goal of this study was to evaluate alpha asymmetry in the frontal region for young people (7-18 years) with generalized anxiety disorder, diagnosed according to two statistic manuals (DMS-IV-R and ICD-10), the medical history and the neuropsychological assessment. The QEEG recording and analysis of the obtained results from alpha spectra power and log of alpha spectra power are made in four conditions (eyes open, eyes closed, VCPT and ACPT). The obtained results for alpha power in general showed higher cortical activity in the right hemisphere, associated with negative emotions. The calculated alpha asymmetry separate for eyes open, eyes closed, VCPT and ACPT conditions showed the right activation in all four conditions. In addition, the right frontal asymmetry was specific for the Fp1-Fp2 region, while a greater left frontal activation was recorded for the F7-F8 region. The log of alpha power in general was additionally analyzed. The calculated asymmetry score in general (in a way that the left log transformed score was subtracted from the right) confirmed a greater right activation. Testing the power of the whole alpha band (μV2) in general, for all four conditions and for frontal region confirmed the right alpha asymmetries in all participants. The right alpha asymmetry in the frontal region was specific only for the Fp1-Fp2 region (frontopolar region). The only greater left frontal activation was registered between the F7-F8 region. Our findings are supported by many other studies using specific localization methods like fMRI or LORETA source localization.


Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of feeding behavior associated with distortion of body image, mood disturbance and a wide variety of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. It is supposed that the disease could be the consequence of a combination of cultural-social, psychological and biological factors.

Our study confirmed that anorexia mentalis is a serious, life threatening disorder which in our country appears earlier than it was expected and that is strongly related to environmental factors (family, school, fashion, society).

We showed that specific personality traits are characteristic for both, young patients and mothers. Sublimation of emotional stress by exceptional performances, accompanied by food restrictive consumption together with hypersensitivity, oppositional behavior and aggression are specific for this disorder. High levels of self-imposed standards increase the risk for psychological distress, especially for eating disorder symptomatology.

Both genders could be involved as patients. Boys must be especially followed for possible psychiatric manifestation.

We confirmed that the biofeedback as additional therapeutic modality is very useful.