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  • Author: Aneta Brodziak x
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Nutritional Value and Technological Suitability of Milk from Cows of Three Polish Breeds Included in the Genetic Resources Conservation Programme

The study included milk obtained from cows of three native cattle breeds, i.e. White-backed (BG), Polish Red (RP) and Polish Black-and-White (ZB) kept under conventional conditions. The reference group consisted of milk from Polish Holstein-Friesian cows (PHF) maintained in the intensive system and milk from Simmental cows (SM) kept under conventional conditions. The following parameters were determined in 976 samples of milk: content of fat, protein, casein, lactose and solids; acidity (pH value); heat stability; rennet coagulation time; content of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, lactoferrin and lysozyme. Additionally, a certain proportion of samples was investigated for fatty acid profile and content of macro- and microelements. Cows of native breeds produced milk of higher nutritional value (higher content of whey proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including CLA) and more suitable for processing as compared to PHF cows. Milk from cows of the Polish Red breed was the most valuable in terms of these parameters, which can be associated with a distinctive phylogenetic origin of this breed. The favourable parameters in regard to the nutritional value and technological suitability of milk obtained from analysed population of cows of 3 breeds included in the programme of genetic resources conservation are therefore an important reason of validity for subsequent implementation of this programme.

Effect of Breed and Feeding System on Content of Selected Whey Proteins in Cow's Milk in Spring-Summer and Autumn-Winter Seasons

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of breed and feeding system on the content of selected whey proteins in cow's milk collected in the spring-summer and autumn-winter periods. A total of 2,278 milk samples from Black- and Red-and-White variety of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows and Simmental and Jersey cows were examined. In each sample the content of selected whey proteins, i.e. alpha-LA, beta-LG, lactoferrin, BSA and lysozyme, was analysed by RP-HPLC method. Evaluation of the simultaneous effect of breed and production season on whey protein content showed significant interactions (P≤0.05 and P≤0.01) for all analysed whey proteins. The milk of Simmental cows kept in the conventional system was characterized by a higher content of whey proteins (with the exception of BSA), in comparison to the cows managed under TMR system. Furthermore, for most of the evaluated components, except the content of BSA and lysozyme and the alpha-LA/beta-LG ratio, the simultaneous effect of feeding system and production season was also found.


Introduction. Professional aspirations appear to be the key factor, which motivates individual to take actions as well as to further self-development. According to medical professions, professional aspirations seem to be crucial because they motivate nurses and midwives to continuing education – what is believed to be the fundament of vocational professionalism.

Aim. The aim of the research was to show the professional aspirations of the graduates of bachelor degree in nursing and midwifery.

Material and methods. The research was conducted with the diagnostic survey based on the questionnaire composed by the authors, within a period from April to June 2017. The research consisted of 158 graduates of bachelor studies.

Results. The majority (89.2%) of the graduates of bachelor studies in nursing and midwifery is planning to improve their professional qualifications. Their main motives are: the desire for being a professional (69.6%), the desire for professional development (52.5%) and the desire for financial situation improvement (47.5%). The MSc studies are most frequently chosen as a way for professional qualifications improvement.

Conclusions. The graduates of the Faculty of Health Sciences express the desire for further professional development. The aspirations, which the examined graduates of bachelor studies in nursing and midwifery are led by, may have a positive impact on their carriers through the strengthening the appropriate moral attitudes, professional development and the sense of professional autonomy.


The aim of the paper was to discuss the factors determining the susceptibility of cows to mastitis, the most important for breeders, including losses incurred by milk producers due to the disease. Inflammations of mammary gland are common and the most awkward problem which dairy farmers face around the world. In the case of clinical udder inflammation, it is estimated that the cost of mastitis is about 200 € per cow with fluctuations from 100 even up to 1000 €. Resistance, i.e. the susceptibility of cows to mastitis, is conditioned genetically. The possibility of BoLA and lactoferrin gene polymorphism, using in the selection cows resistant to mastitis, is indicated. Bacteria inhabiting the mammary gland, and the living environment of animals are primarily the main etiological factor. Moreover, many authors indicate the differences between breeds of cows in resistance to mastitis. High-productive breeds are generally more susceptible to the udder inflammation, in comparison to the local breeds. The greatest reduction in milk yield is observed in the case of these breeds, and especially in Holstein-Friesian breed, in which the decline of daily yield at somatic cell count (SCC) amounting above 500,000 per ml of milk can reach 25%. The probability of mastitis occurrence increases with an age of cows and following lactation, and dry period is a time of increased risk. Higher incidence of inflammation is also associated with abnormalities in the construction of the udder (unevenly developed quarters, too long or too short teats). In recent years, a possible relationship between feeding system of cows with their resistance to udder infections has been reported. It is emphasized that a deficiency of selenium and vitamins A and E in the ration may contribute to the increase in the number of mastitis incidences. There are, however, unclear opinions of various authors on the effect of automatic milking system on udder health.


The aim of the study was to compare the content of selected bioactive whey proteins and lipophilic vitamins, which largely determine the bioactive status of milk, in milk obtained from local breeds of cows raised in Poland (Polish Red, White-Backed and Simmental) and Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. Basic chemical composition and content of selected bioactive compounds (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and vitamins: E, A, D3 and β-carotene) in 550 milk samples were analysed. The milk produced by local breeds proved to be a more valuable source of whey proteins and lipophilic vitamins than that of the Polish Holstein-Friesians. It was distinguished by its content of all bioactive compounds, including those with antioxidant properties, i.e. vitamins E, A and D3 and β-lactoglobulin, and antimicrobial properties, mainly lactoferrin. Therefore, the milk of cows of local breeds should be considered a valuable material for processing, especially at the level of the farm or small local processing plant, to produce products that are richer in health-promoting compounds. The promotion of milk from local breeds can therefore be an opportunity for the farms that raise them.