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  • Author: Aneta Atanasovska-Stojanovska x
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In global terms, periodontitis is the leading cause of tooth loss, and causes serious aesthetic and functional problems. There are numerous scientific evidence that power periopathogenic microorganisms may have influence on some systemic conditions and diseases. If we add the fact that periimplantitis are caused by identical periopathogenes, management or effective identification and elimination of periodontal inflammation set as imperative in successful periodontal treatment and possible complications locally or systemic, as well as resistance and lifetime of the implants. As a method for quantifying and classification of bacterial species are recommended monitoring of the bacterial micro flora through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technique. Laser therapy as a supplementary method to classic treatment is strongly emphasized as a new therapeutic option that uses the photo-thermal effect to fight bacterial infection. Air flow - an original method that uses water, air and powder help to destroy the biofilm and remove plaque. Oral application of LAD (Light activated disinfection) therapy influence nascent oxygen breaks down the interaction in biofilm and makes the microorganisms more sensitive to further damage. Finally, the role and use of probiotics as a link between the beneficial oral bacteria species and inflammation

Analysis of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 Gene Polymorphisms in Macedonian Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

Background. The existing conflicting data in the literature about the significance of TGF-beta1 polymorphisms in periodontitis.

Aim. To determine whether TGF-beta1 polymorphisms are associated with periodontitis in Macedonian population.

Material and methods. The sample consisted of 301 healthy unrelated individuals, and 132 patients with periodontitis. All individuals were of Macedonian origin and nationality and residents of different regions of the Republic of Macedonia. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes by the phenol-chlorophorm extraction method. Cytokine polymorphism genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP (Heidelberg kit). The population genetics analysis package (PyPop) was used for analysis of the data. Crude odds ratios, were calculated with 95% confidence interval.P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results. Significant negative (protective) association between the Macedonian patients with periodontitis and: 1) cytokine genotypes TGF-beta1 cdn 10/C:T and TGF-beta1 cdn 25/G:G; 2) cytokine haplotypes TGF-beta1/TG and cytokine haplotype zygotes TGF-beta1/CG:TG were found. Positive (susceptible) association was found with: 1) cytokine alleles TGF-beta1 cdn 10/C and TGF-beta1 cdn 25/C; 2) cytokine genotypes TGF-beta1 cdn 10/C:C and TGF-beta1 cdn 25/C:G; and 3) cytokine haplotypes TGF-beta1/CC and cytokine haplotype zygotes TGF-beta1/CC:CG.

Conclusion. It is concluded that polymorphisms of TGF-beta1 gene are associated with an increased risk of chronic periodontitis in Macedonian population.


Introduction: The present study aimed to assess the presence of main types of microorganisms involved in the aetiopathogenesis of chronic periodontitis with PCR technique and determinates the presence of composite IL-1 genotype and their associations with founded bacteria.

Material and method: The examined group was consisted from 20 subjects with diagnosed chronic periodontitis and 20 healthy control without periodontitis. Clinical parameters like gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment lost (CAL) were determinates. Subgingival dental plaque was collected using a sterilized paper point. We used Parodontose Plus test, reverse hybridization kit, for the detection of periodontal marker bacteria, as well as for the detection of composite Interleukin -1 Genotype

Results: The most present bacterial species detected from subgingival dental plaque was Treponema denticola and Porfiromonas gingivalis which was present in 65% of examined patients. In relation to the presence of positive genotype in patients, there was no significant difference between the test and control group for p> 0.05 (p = 1.00). For χ2=8,17 (p=0,06, p<0,05) there is an association between Prevotella intermedia, and composite genotype.

Between positive genotype and analyzed bacterial species A. actinomycetem comitans for p> 0.05 (p = 1.00), P. gingivalis for p> 0.05 (p = 0.16), T. Forsythia for p> 0.05 (p = 0.20), T. Denticola for p> 0.05 (p = 0.64) no association was found.

Conclusion. This investigations confirmed the strong association of these five examined periopathogenes with periodontitis.


Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a quite frequent, painful, ulcerative disease that affects the lining of the oral cavity and has an unknown etiology. The aim of this article is to examine the impact of the medication proaftol on epithelization speed and severity of pain in patients with RAS. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study respondents were divided into two groups where one group was treated with proaftol spray and the other with a placebo. Aphthae considered for treatment had a diameter of 5-6 mm. The participants were given instruction on the use of the spray, two sprayings on the place of the aphtae 3-4 times a day. We examined two parameters in the symptomatology of RAS-lesion size (mm) and pain intensity (noted on four subjective levels: 0-no pain, 1-discomfort, 2-moderate pain, 3-severe pain). These parameters were noted on the baseline, the third, the fifth and the eighth days of examination.

Results: A significant faster reduction of the dimension of aphthous ulcers in patients treated with proaftol 3rd day p < 0.001, 5th day p < 0.0006, 8th day full epithelization in the control group. The magnitude of pain in the experimental compared with the control group on 3rd, 5th and 8th day was also significantly reduced: p < 0.0001, p < 0.007, p < 0.007 respectively.

Conclusion: The use of proaftol positively influences the rate of epithelization and reduction of subjective feeling of pain in patients with RAS. The action of propolis should be the goal of studies with a larger number of subjects.

IL-1 Gene Cluster Polymorphisms in the Macedonian Population

The aim of this study was to genotype IL-1 gene cluster polymorphisms in the Macedonian population. A group composed of 301 healthy unrelated individuals was selected. IL-1 genotyping of the samples was performed by the PCR-SSP procedure followed by analysis of the IL-1 data with the PyPop population genetic analysis software package. The frequency of IL-1 alleles varies from 0.814 for IL1A -889/C, 0.729 for IL-1B +3962/C, 0.698 for IL-1RN mspa 11100/T, 0.671 for IL-1B -511/C, followed by 0.663 for IL-1R psti 1970/C indicating common "wild type" allele. We determined 27 different haplotypes from the total number of 32. The most frequent haplotypes for IL-1 are CCCCT (0.191), CTCCT (0.127), CCCTT (0.098), CCCCC (0.085), CTCTT (0.082). All pairs of loci for IL-1, except for IL-1R psti 1970, are in linkage disequilibrium, with p<0.05. The closest genetic distance is observed between the studied Macedonian population and the population from ItalyTorino, while the most genetically distant populations were TaiwanTsou, and TaiwanYami. It is concluded that IL-1 cluster alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in Macedonian population show a good concordance with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium and can be used for anthropological comparisons, as well as for association studies with different diseases.


Introduction. Kidney disease is associated with many abnormalities in the oral health status as well as with alterations in salivary flow and composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to correlate oral clinical findings, salivary flow (SF) and salivary pH values in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on hemodyalisis treatment, those undergoing hemodialysis and in kidney transplant recipients.

Methods. In a cross-sectional study 90 patients were included. The cohort was composed of three groups: 30 patients with CKD (serum creatinine values under 120 μmol/L-group 1), 30 patients with CKD on hemodialysis (group 2) and 30 kidney transplanted patients (group 3). The control group consisted of 20 healthy individuals. Oral symptoms, signs and lesions: salivary volume, salivary pH and SF of stimulated and unstimulated saliva were evaluated.

Results. Among patients with CKD without dialysis treatment inverse relationship was found between uremic fetor, unpleasant taste and unstimulated SF and also between xerostomia and stimulated SF. Negative correlation between thirst and unstimulated salivary flow was found in both groups, patients with CKD on dialysis and kidney transplant group. Furthermore, in kidney-transplant patients a negative correlation was found between petechiae and SF, while in group of patients with CKD on hemodialysis the same negative correlation was registered between uremic fetor and stimulated SF.

Conclusions. Salivary flow was significantly lower in hemodialysis patients, while the highest was in the kidney-transplant recipients accompanied with improvement in the other oral clinical findings observed in our study.


Aim:To determine whether there is an immunogenic connection and antigen difference between the HLA antigens in the erosive (EOLP) and reticular (ROLP) oral lichen planus.

Materials and Method: 73 patients with ROLP and EOLP have been tested. Typing of the HLA antigens has been made for locus A and B. The typing of the HLA was conducted with the use of microlymphocyto toxic test by Terasaki. The reading of the findings has been conducted with an inverse microscope. When a reaction has 4 points it is considered to be positive.

Results: The most frequently typified antigens in ROLP from locus A are HLA А2 (57.57%) and А3 (33.33)%, and for locus B 21.21%. In EOLP it is А9 (8888%). In locus B a connection has been found with HLA B8 (77.77%). The statistical analysis with the ×2 test has shown that the carriers of HLA A9 display a relative risk (RR) of 3.65 and ×2=20.72. Consequently, there is high static importance for locus A p<0,001. For locus B, In EOLP for HLA B8, RR=6. 7 ×2=37.64 and p<0,001. ROLP has shown association with HLA A3, where RR=2. 31 and ×2 =9.14 and p<0.05.

Conclusions: In ROLP A3 antigen and in EOLP A9 and A8 may be considered as carriers with proneness to OLP.


Aim: To examine the role of IgA, CIC and component C3 as indicators of humoral immune response in the etiopathogenesis of oral erosive lichen planus (OELP).

Material and method: The study comprised 19 patients with OELP whose samples of blood, saliva and tissue were obtained after carefully taken medical history and clinical examination. Samples of oral mucosa were taken from the site of lesion, i.e. exclusively from buccal mucosa (1 cm in width and length), and from the deep epithelium as well as a segment from the lamina propria. Determination of immunoglobulins in serum and saliva, and determination of component C3, was done using the micro-elisa technique by Rook & Cameron, Engvall and Ulman. Determination of CIC in serum and mixed saliva was done with the PEG (polyethylene glycol) method. Determination of immunoglobulin A and component C3 in biopsy material was done with direct immunofluorescence.

Results: Levels of immunoglobulin A in serum in OELP during exacerbation were decreased (1.04 ± 0.49 gr/l) and during remission increased (5.92 ± 0.62) in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001). Levels of CIC during exacerbation and remission were increased (p < 0.001), and component C3 levels were increased in both examined phases in the examined group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Deposits of IgA were registered in one (5.88%) patient with OELP and component C3 was registered in 3 (17.64%) patients.

Conclusion: Changes in IgA values, as well as CIC and component C3, may correlate with changes in oral mucosa emphasizing the role of humoral immune response in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.