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  • Author: Andrzej Truty x
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Nonlinear soil–linear structure computational strategy is commonly accepted in the community of geotechnical engineers using advanced finite element software for solving complex soil–structure interaction problems. However, further design procedure of the structural elements is carried out using increased values of the computed elastic stress resultants. It is absolutely not clear whether this method is conservative and, therefore, whether safe or not. To tackle this problem, a fully consistent nonlinear analysis of a deep excavation protected by the diaphragm wall is analysed here. The subsoil is modelled using the Hardening Soil model, while reinforced concrete is modelled using the modified Lee–Fenves model enhanced by the Eurocode 2 (EC2)-compatible creep module, developed by the author. It is shown that the commonly used nonlinear soil–linear structure computational strategy may yield insufficient amount of reinforcement from the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) points of view. A consistent and conservative method of combining fully nonlinear analysis and the rules imposed by the EC2 is proposed.


The analysis of an important drawback of the well known Hardening Soil model (HSM) is the main purpose of this paper. A special emphasis is put on modifying the HSM to enable an appropriate prediction of the undrained shear strength using a nonzero dilatancy angle. In this light, the paper demonstrates an advanced numerical finite element modeling addressed to practical geotechnical problems. The main focus is put on serviceability limit state analysis of a twin-tunnel excavation in London clay. The two-phase formulation for partially saturated medium, after Aubry and Ozanam, is used to describe interaction between soil skeleton and pore water pressure.