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  • Author: Andrzej Tomporowski x
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Destructiveness of Profits and Outlays Associated with Operation of Offshore Wind Electric Power Plant. Part 1: Identification of a Model and its Components

Abstract

This paper describes identification and components of destructiveness of energy, economic and ecologic profits and outlays during life cycle of offshore wind electric power plants as well as the most useful models for their design, assembly and use. There are characterized technical conditions (concepts, structures, processes) indispensable for increasing profits and/or decreasing energy, economic and ecological outlays on their operation as well as development prospects for global, European and domestic markets of offshore wind electric power industry. A preliminary analysis was performed for an impact of operators, processed objects, living and artificial environmental objects of a 2MW wind electric power plant on possible increase of profits and decrease of outlays as a result of compensation of destructiveness of the system, environment and man.

Open access
Machinery Life Cycle Efficiency Models for their Sustainable Development

Abstract

The work describes the components of efficiency in the form of energy, economic and ecological benefits and outlays in the life cycle, i.e. construction and operation of machinery, equipment and power systems, on the example of wind farms and the most important models useful in designing their construction and operation for increasing system safety in three areas: environment, technical system, and human health. Technical conditions (ideas, constructions and processes) necessary to increase the benefits and / or reduce energy, economic and ecological expenditure of the operation and the prospects for effective development of the global, European and national wind energy market are characterized. A preliminary analysis of the relations of operators, workpieces, live and artificial objects of the 2-MW wind farm environment was carried out, for the possibility of increasing the benefits and reduction of outlays as a result of compensating for the destructiveness of the system, the environment and man.

Open access
Evaluation of the Quality of the Production Process PET Bottles

Abstract

In the article was presented the results of analysis of the nonconformities which occur during the production of PET bottles in the selected company from Poland. The analysis included six process unit operations of forming PET bottles. The aim of the analysis is to present specific corrective and improvement actions based on the results obtained. The article presents a short description of the process of shaping PET bottles for six selected operations. The block diagram of the PET bottle shaping process is presented. Quality management tools were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The use of the Pareto-Lorenz diagram allowed for quantitative an approach to the quality problems of PET bottles. The Ishikawa diagram was used to identify potential causes of the most frequent problem. Corrective actions were proposed to improve the quality of PET bottles tested. The research problem has been solved. As a critical element requiring improvement, the competences of employees and the process of operating machines and devices were indicated.

Open access
Ecological Efficiency Assessment Model for Environmental Safety Management of Wind Power Plant

Abstract

This study focuses on the evaluation of the benefits and ecological costs that occur in the life cycle of a wind power plant. The study constitutes an attempt to expand upon previously conducted research on the analysis of costs and benefits in the stages of production, operation and post-consumer management of wind turbines. The aim of the study adopted research methodology, analysis and assessment of the benefits and environmental impacts of the Vestas V90/105m 2 MW wind turbine throughout its life cycle. Original assessment indicators of the benefits and ecological costs occurring throughout a wind power plant’s life cycle for environmental safety management, were proposed and verified.

Open access
Application of Algorithm of Discipline D2 of G8D Method in Solving Selected Problems of Quality Control Management

Abstract

The G8D method is a universal method for solving problems arising in production processes, also used in optimisation of these processes. The method allows the detection and elimination of any drawbacks occurring in manufacturing processes and ensuring the safety of these processes.

In the article, the authors have presented one of the sensitive and critical disciplines of the G8D problem solving method in production processes, i.e. discipline D2 - “problem description”. The authors have presented the algorithm of procedure in the discipline D2 as well as the quality management tools that can be used to correctly “describe the problem”. The authors have also discussed the procedure for the discipline D2 in the “problem description” for the case of the projection welding of a nut.

Open access
Basis of Biomass Grinders Sustainable Designing

Abstract

Grinding operations are one of the most commonly used preparation processes in many branches, for example in food, energy and chemical sectors. This paper focuses on the issues connected with design of technical objects in accordance with sustainable development assumptions. The aim of this study is to create methodology of sustainable design of grinding machine, including external influences involved in their operation, to increase safety, energy, economic and eco- efficiency. The problem formulated as a question: what techniques, equipment, methods, and ways should be used in design to obtain a new, better grinder structure? To resolve the problem, original methodology of sustainable design has been created.

Open access
Comparison Analysis of Blade Life Cycles of Land-Based and Offshore Wind Power Plants

Abstract

In recent years, the offshore wind power industry has been growing dynamically. A key element which decides upon power output of a wind power plant is blades. They are most frequently produced from polymers – laminates with epoxy resins and fiberglass. In the near future, when the blade life cycles are over, large amounts of waste material of this type will have to be reused. This paper presents a comparison analysis of the impact of particular material existence cycle stages of land-based and offshore wind power plant blades on the environment. Two wind power plant blades, of about 49 m in length each, were examined using the LCA method, the programme SimaPro, and Ekowskaźnik 99 modelling (phase LCIA).

Open access
The Energy Use Of Granulate And Pyrolysis Oil From Discarded Car Tires As A Method To Increase Ecological And Energy Safety

Abstract

On average, there are about 60 kg of rubber in a passenger car, about 67% of which are tires, about 20% of all kinds body seals, doors and windows, suspension elements amount to 5%, the rest are other elements related to the engine (seals, hoses, wires, pads, etc.). Rubber waste is too valuable resource to direct to landfills. The vast majority of recovery of used tires in Poland (over 70%) is carried out by burning tires with energy recovery. Tires in the form of granulate, mixed with coal dust, are burn in some combined heat and power plants. The paper presents results of experimental studies of possible use for energy purposes, granules and pyrolysis oil the resulting from discarded car tires for increasing ecological and energy safety. Energy properties of granulates and pyrolysis oil were investigated and the shape and size of granulate particles were analyzed. For this purpose, digital image processing (CAMSIZER device) and calorimeter were used. It was found that the products of tire recycling decommissioned from exploitationare the high-energy material with good calorific value. Based on the results of experimental studies, application conditions of rubber waste for energy purposes was formulated.

Open access
Bulkhead Door – Critical Evacuation States

Abstract

The article is a preliminary to a modification concept of the sliding watertight bulkhead door used on ships and vessels. Hydraulic or electro-hydraulic drives used to move these doors require complicated and extended pressure installations with large amounts of hydraulic fluid. Well-known operational drawbacks of these installations include high level of noise and possibility of various leaks in the hydraulic system. Being the first in a series, the present article describes and analyses critical states which can take place during evacuation of people through openings in the watertight bulkhead doors on seagoing ships and vessels.

Open access
Assessment of Energy Use and Elimination of Co2 Emissions in the Life Cycle of an Offshore Wind Power Plant Farm

Abstract

Power stations in marine locations cause multi-faceted impact on the environment, man and the economy. There are not many studies devoted to modeling energy benefits for CO2 emissions. The paper presents the issues of assessing the efficiency of offshore wind farms, defined as the ratio of benefits to life cycle inputs. The scientific goal was to develop a mathematical model for efficiency in the design, manufacture, use and management of offshore wind power. The papers practical purpose is the experimental designation of the impact of selected post-use management methods, time of use and maritime location, i.e. average annual productivity of wind power plants on the efficiency of energy benefits from greenhouse gas emissions. The mathematical model of the integrated cost-benefit ratio has been developed for energy use assessment, taking into account the benefits generated by electricity production and the life-cycle CO2 emissions based on the LCA analysis using the CML method. Mathematical model validation was performed by determining the value of the indicator for an existing 2 MW offshore wind farm and comparatively for fossil fuel production: lignite, stone, fuel oil and natural gas. Analytical and research work carried out showed that the higher the efficiency index, the higher the value of the indicator. It has been shown that the location of the power station at sea produces more favorable CO2 elimination rates, due to higher productivity compared to in-land wind power plants. A more favorable form of post-consumer management for CO2 has been determined as recycling. It was found that for electricity generated from offshore wind farms, the value of the energy efficiency benefit from CO2 emissions is higher than for fossil fuel energy production.

Open access