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Open access

Andrzej Lipowski, Anna Szczotka-Bochniarz and Zygmunt Pejsak


Introduction: Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) infects a wide range of animals, including members of the Suidae family, i.e. domestic and wild pigs, as well as wild boar. Since wild boar are a potential ADV reservoir and a source of infection for domestic pigs, the aim of the study was to evaluate ADV antibody prevalence in the Polish wild boar population, during the years 2011 to 2014.

Material and Methods: Wild boar blood samples were collected during three consecutive hunting seasons; i.e. 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014, and tested for ADV antibodies by ELISA.

Results: ADV antibodies were detected in samples from all tested voivodships. The average seroprevalence reached 32.2%. Seroprevalence, over the examined hunting seasons, was 27.4% in 2011/2012, 32.4% in 2012/2013, and 35.5% in 2013/2014. The highest percentage of seroreagents was detected in four voivodships, situated along the western border of Poland, i.e. Zachodnio-Pomorskie (ZP), Lubuskie (LB), Dolnośląskie (DS), and Opolskie (OP). This area is positively correlated with the highest density of the wild boar population and the highest wild boar hunting bag.

Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that the wild boar population may still pose a threat to domestic pigs, which is of special importance at the final stage of Aujeszky’s disease eradication programme in Poland.

Open access

Anna Szczotka-Bochniarz, Andrzej Lipowski, Anna Kycko, Bartosz Sell, Michał Ziółkowski and Barbara Małek


Introduction: Aujeszky’s disease (AD), most often related to infection of domestic and feral swine, may also concern other mammals, including dogs. The disease in carnivores, related to consumption of raw meat or offal contaminated with AD virus, is manifested by severe neurological disorders and inevitably leads to animal’s death.

Material and Methods: Karelian bear dog was euthanised due to nervous symptoms that started two days after participation in wild boar hunting. After exclusion of rabies the dog’s carcass was subjected to standard necropsy. Tissue samples were collected for histological examination. Samples of the brain were tested for ADV by real-time PCR and virus isolation. Samples of the liver were collected for toxicological examination.

Results: The presence of ADV was confirmed by real-time PCR and virus isolation. Toxicological examination revealed anticoagulant poisoning. This is the first case of Aujeszky’s disease (AD) in a hunting dog in Poland after exposure to ADV from offal of wild boar.

Conclusion: This infection should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of syndromes of neurological disorders in dogs. Since AD is found in both domestic pigs and wild boar in Poland, special care must be taken to prevent spread of infection to other species.

Open access

Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka and Joseph Woodburn


SI engines are highly susceptible to excess emissions when started at low ambient temperatures. This phenomenon has multiple air quality and climate forcing implications. Direct injection petrol engines feature a markedly different fuelling strategy, and so their emissions behaviour is somewhat different from indirect injection petrol engines. The excess emissions of direct injection engines at low ambient temperatures should also differ. Additionally, the direct injection fuel delivery process leads to the formation of PM, and DISI engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study reports on laboratory experiments quantifying excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants over a legislative driving cycle following cold start at a low ambient temperature for both engine types. Over the legislative cycle for testing at -7°C (the UDC), emissions of HC, CO, NOx and CO2 were higher when tested at -7°C than at 24°C. Massive increases in emissions of HC and CO were observed, together with more modest increases in NOx and CO2 emissions. Results from the entire driving cycle showed excess emissions in both phases (though they were much larger for the UDC). The DISI vehicle showed lower increases in fuel consumption than the port injected vehicles, but greater increases in emission of HC and CO. DISI particle number emissions increased by around 50%; DISI particle mass by over 600%. The observed emissions deteriorations varied somewhat by engine type and from vehicle to vehicle. Excesses were greatest following start-up, but persisted, even after several hundred seconds’ driving. The temperature of the intake air appeared to have a limited but significant effect on emissions after the engine has been running for some time. All vehicles tested here comfortably met the relevant EU limits, providing further evidence that these limits are no longer challenging and need updating.