Functional quality of caterpillar fighting vehicles can be assessed upon its original project design and technical characteristics. However, lapse of time, technical and technological progress, battlefield dynamics, new and evolving threats can negatively verify both offensive and defensive effectiveness of such vehicles. As a result, appears need of modernization addressing new threats and requirements. Main goal of modernization is to achieve advantage over potential enemy fighting vehicles. This work is an attempt to analyse possible development patches and despite technological and materials progress inseparable increase of the vehicle’s combat weight on operating capabilities of such vehicles.
Modern wheeled armoured vehicles are constructed as multipurpose. Universal construction of vehicle is achieved in two separate ways: as specialized versions of vase model or by using exchangeable mission-modules. Realization of various tasks requires different equipment; ensure adequate level of protection and firepower. Increase of protection level, implementation of weapon systems, characterized by high firepower despite technological advancement in this field affect vehicles weight increase and therefore, it also affects requirements for other vehicle systems. Ensuring high mobility requires use of high power, turbocharged diesel engines, hydro mechanical transmission, hydro pneumatics suspension, possibility of clearance adjustment, use of central wheel pumping system enabling tire pressure change according to the surface on witch vehicle runs. This study gathers and compares characteristics of selected wheeled armoured personnel carriers and determines possible directions of development for future wheeled vehicles.
One of the most important parameters affecting traction properties as well as driving safety, especially with regard to vehicles with special purpose, is the distribution of wheel and axle loads on the ground. This issue should be taken into account during the process of creating new vehicles as well as during the modernization process. In the first case, it is quite simple because the mass distribution is shaped already in the design phase. In the second case, the problem is more complex, because with modernization solutions we enter an already existing structure. Modernization basically assumes improving the performance and capabilities of the vehicle with possibly small changes in its base structure. Thus, it imposes important boundary conditions. The article presents the methodology of measurement and selected results of measurements of mass distribution as well as wheel and axle loads of selected motor vehicles during their advanced modernization (STAR 266 cars to the version STAR 266M2 and Honker 2000 to the version Honker M-AX). Modernizations carried out by Autobox Innovations Ltd. Lim. Par are mainly focused on increasing the traction of vehicles, traffic safety, and driving comfort. Measurements were made at the above-mentioned company.
One of the most important and commonly used means of transport in the armed forces of various countries is wheeled armoured personnel carriers. After proper preparation, beside transport tasks, they can carry out special tasks, as part of regular and irregular activities within purpose of supporting actions of troops. This paper presents preliminary results of numerical research of wheeled armoured personnel carrier with 8x8-drive system. The effect of impact of large calibre cannon (120 mm) with reduced recoil force on transporter behaviour was investigated. The research object model consists of shell, solid and discrete elements. The research was carried out in the LS-DYNA software. Considered variant applies to sideways firing (to the left of the vehicle) for cannon elevation angle 16 deg. Numerical model of standing still on the flat ground wheeled armoured personnel carrier was preloaded with the gravitational force. The results of post-firing vehicle behaviour including angular displacement of the hull, dynamic deflections of the suspensions and impact on the stability of the wheeled vehicle were evaluated.
The extortions that result in the vibrations of a hull of the combat vehicle have an impact on the tracked combat vehicle during the off-road driving. They may have a negative impact on the crew, internal equipment, shooting accuracy. A level of the hull loads depends on quality of the suspension system, which main responsibility consists in minimising an amplitude of the vibrations. Therefore, it is necessary both to improve a structure of the suspension system, and its components, as well as their optimisation.
The tests of the driving smoothness of the vehicle and quality of the suspension elements can be realised both within a frame of the model tests and while driving in the real conditions. The assessment criteria of the driving smoothness are directly related to the negative influence of the vibrations to the human body. The suspension quality should be assumed both upon an execution of the vehicle prototype, and during the design or modernisation phase. It results both in reducing the time, and minimisation of the costs and risk related to the structure development. The model tests enable to evaluate the driving smoothness and comfort prior to an execution of the prototype. The tests on the test tracks in the final phase of the development are carried out in order to evaluate the driving smoothness.
Efficient heat dissipation from modern electronic devices is a key issue for their proper performance. An important role in the assembly of electronic devices is played by polymers, due to their simple application and easiness of processing. The thermal conductivity of pure polymers is relatively low and addition of thermally conductive particles into polymer matrix is the method to enhance the overall thermal conductivity of the composite. The aim of the presented work is to examine a possibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of the filled epoxy resin systems, applicable for electrical insulation, by the use of composites filled with graphene nanoplatelets. It is remarkable that the addition of only 4 wt.% of graphene could lead to 132 % increase in thermal conductivity. In this study, several new aspects of graphene composites such as sedimentation effects or temperature dependence of thermal conductivity have been presented. The thermal conductivity results were also compared with the newest model. The obtained results show potential for application of the graphene nanocomposites for electrical insulation with enhanced thermal conductivity. This paper also presents and discusses the unique temperature dependencies of thermal conductivity in a wide temperature range, significant for full understanding thermal transport mechanisms.
The paper presents results of the scale-up silo flow investigation in based on accelerometer signal analysis and Wi-Fi transmission, performed in distributed laboratory environment. Prepared, by the authors, a set of 8 accelerometers allows to measure a three-dimensional acceleration vector. The accelerometers were located outside silo, on its perimeter. The accelerometers signal changes allowed to analyze dynamic behavior of solid (vibrations/pulsations) at silo wall during discharging process. These dynamic effects are caused by stick-slip friction between the wall and the granular material. Information about the material pulsations and vibrations is crucial for monitoring the interaction between silo construction and particle during flow. Additionally such spatial position of accelerometers sensor allowed to collect information about nonsymmetrical flow inside silo.
Measuring changes of bulk materials concentration during gravitational flow, a silo emptying is essential information for the assessment of the behaviour and condition of the material during the emptying of the silo. Parameters obtained during this process are important both in terms of process economics and safety, are the basis for monitoring and diagnostics of the process. Affect the current process, but primarily are the result of their filling the silo, and the process of storing the material. Previous studies, conducted by a team of authors, the laboratory-scale silos and numerical calculations and simulations of its increase, helped build the ECT sensor on a large scale. Results related to the change of scale of the sensor and the actual measurements will be discussed in the article. Proposed by the authors of the paper, the method of visualization, performed in the measuring process, helps to ask about the process and suggests a methodology for dealing with the material stored in the silo.
Getting to know the response of different groups of aquatic organisms tested in altered thermal environments to environmental conditions makes it possible to understand processes of adaptation and limitation factors such as temperature and light. Field sites were located in three thermally abnormal lakes (cooling system of power plants), in eastern part of Wielkopolska region (western Poland): Pątnowskie, Wąsosko-Mikorzyńskie and Licheńskie. Water temperatures of these lakes do not fall below 10°C throughout the year, and the surface water temperature in spring is about 20˚C. In this study, we investigated the species structure of the spring phytoplankton community in a temperature gradient and analyzed diversity of periphyton collected from alien species (Vallisneria spiralis) and stones. 94 taxa belonging to 56 genera of algae (including phytoplankton and periphyton) were determined. The highest number of algae species were observed among Chlorophyta (49), Bacillariophyceae (34) and Cyanobacteria (6). In spite of important differences in temperature in the investigated lakes, taxonomic composition of phytoplankton was comparable. Thermophilic species: Glochidinium penardiforme and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were found in the species structure (blooms were not observed). The obtained data also showed that the biotic surface of Vallisneria spiralis was a better substrate for Bacillariophyceae colonization than stones. The examination in the spring season of these thermally altered lakes, indicated the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton typical for eutrophic reservoirs (not heated). There was no replacement of any phytoplankton groups which are characteristic for spring conditions, even if there were changes in the competition dynamics.