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Andrzej Richling

Abstract

The development of the concept of an areal natural unit as a result of the needs of the economic practice and the popularisation of the general systems theory. Ecosystems and geosystems. Hierarchy of the natural system. Topological and chorological units. The issue of a universal natural unit. Applications. The influence of the concept under discussion on the development of the integrated research on the natural environement.

Open access

Andrzej Richling and Jerzy Lechnio

Abstract

At present, geoecology-related discussions are focused on the ability to provide systematic and universal landscape description in a variety of space and time scales, as well as in different functional systems. This requires the development of landscape schemes in the form of hierarchical structural and functional systems. This paper has therefore focused on concepts of crucial importance for landscape system description, such as scale, spatial range and structure and landscape functioning. The definition of these concepts and their characteristics are crucial for the ability to describe a landscape system, in terms of its structural and functional composition and valuation, as well as assessment of landscape and ecosystem functions and services. Therefore, the analysis allows a demonstration of approaches discussed in the subject literature and the authors’ opinions.

Open access

Andrzej Richling, Ewa Malinowska and Iwona Szumacher

Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to represent the hierarchical structure of an environment by using two concepts: typology and regionalization. The Płock Region (1,766.95 sq. km) and transect crossing this area (796.2 sq. km) is the research location. It was divided into 710 individual landscape units (319 in the transect border). The existing physical-geographical regionalization, including macro-, meso- and micro-regions, was elaborated using a deductive (top-down) method, which was supplemented by a more detailed regionalization, obtained by an inductive (bottom-up) method called analysis of borders (Richling 1976). The study area was divided into more detailed sub-regions: first-level regions (87 units), second-level regions (36 units) and third-level regions (9 units). In fact, the landscape structure of third-level regions is similar to micro-regions. This is proof of the complementary nature of the two approaches – deductive and inductive regionalization, and the hierarchical landscape structure.