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Andrzej Rapacz and Daria E. Jaremen

Abstract

Characteristics of local development planning from the perspective of planning documents referring to selected tourist communes Local development planning (including the preparation of planning documents) as well as undertaking initiatives and tasks supporting local development (resulting from planning documents) play the key role in local development steering process. The objective of the hereby paper is to analyze planning documents prepared for the selected territorial self-government units (four tourism oriented communes located in Lower Silesia region) in relation to strategic planning qualities identification in particular communes and referring these qualities to the conditions of effective strategic planning (discussed in literature on public management). The conducted research results confirm that many strategic planning qualities, in the selected communes, may be responsible for lowering its effectiveness. The ones, which are mainly responsible for counteracting effective planning, are as follow: reducing SWOT analysis to just the method for listing strengths and weaknesses of communal development potential, as well as presenting only the opportunities and threats; the absence of new management tools and techniques application, including the scenario oriented method; uncritical transfer of patterns from strategies prepared for other communes and referring to planning documents more as the condition for obtaining external financing sources rather than an actual programme facilitating the accomplishment of developmental goals. In spite of the above, the improvement of planning process has been observed in communes, which in consequence should result in higher level of local development programmes practical usefulness.

Open access

Andrzej Rapacz and Daria E. Jaremen

Summary

The economic crisis, which has affected the global economy in recent years, also exerted impact on, among others, the tourism sector. It view of the worse financial and economic results obtained by enterprises operating in tourist sector and other negative phenomena tourist entities started paying attention to tools adequate for crisis management. The objective of article is to define the impact of economic crisis on the functioning of Polish tourist enterprises both in the perspective of its effects and activities undertaken to overcome them. The paper presents an attempt to verify the hypotheses, referring to the opinion of tourist companies’ managers, according to which an increase in operating costs represents the more important result of the current global crisis, rather than a drop in revenues or smaller number of clients. In spite of that, among crisis management instruments higher significance, than cost reduction, is associated with such activities and instruments as: promotion and its intensification, higher online sales intensity, offering discounts on services or winning new sale markets. It refers to hypothesis verification suggesting that these enterprises are not prepared for crisis situations and the activates undertaken are of temporary nature. The discussion presented in the paper is based on empirical research results carried out among entrepreneurs operating in tourism sector in the most popular tourist locations in The Karkonosze and The Izery mountains, i.e. Karpacz, Szklarska Poręba, Świeradów Zdrój and Jelenie Góra. The empirical part of the paper was preceded by theoretical remarks referring to attitudes of crisis management in tourism. The results of conducted research indicate that in the opinion of the majority of tourist companies’ managers/owners the crucial impact of the global crises was observed in higher functioning costs, while the most important instrument for its effects counteracting is the extension of promotion and offer distribution, mainly online, with the cost reduction to follow.

Open access

Andrzej Rapacz and Izabela Michalska-Dudek

Summary

Implementation of The Relationship Marketing Concept and CRM Technology In Maintaining Customer Loyalty In Travel Offices in Poland In this paper, there are presented both the essence of the relationship marketing concept and the characteristics of CRM class systems, as well as basic advantages and threats resulting from their implementation. There are also described results of the questionnaire survey, which estimated the awareness and level of application of marketing relationship concept and CRM technology in functioning of travel offices in Poland. Conducted survey results allowed for an assessment of the crucial component of the study becomes an identification of benefits and concerns related to implementing these solutions by travel offices.

Open access

Daria E. Jaremen and Andrzej Rapacz

Abstract

In the situation of insufficient subsidies for the substantive activities of museums, primarily the ones funded by the local governments, as well as low attendance of visitors, not really interested in the traditional offer of such institutions, there is an urgent need to extend it with additional elements corresponding to the expectations of a contemporary client. The observation of the thriving museums in Poland and worldwide indicates that cultural events represent such an attractive component which expands the museum offer. The article presents an attempt of explaining the role of cultural events in developing a museum product based on the analysis of a specific case of the Municipal Museum Gerhart Hauptmann’s House in Jelenia Góra-Jagniątków.

Open access

Magdalena Dudek, Bartłomiej Lis, Alicja Rapacz-Kmita, Marcin Gajek, Andrzej Raźniak and Ewa Drożdż

Abstract

In this paper, the impact of partial substitution of calcium for barium in (Ba1-xCax) (M0.9Y0.1) O3, M = Ce, Zr on physicochemical properties of the powders and sintered samples was investigated. The powders, with various contents of calcium (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1), were prepared by means of thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors containing EDTA. All of the BaCeO3-based powders synthesised at 1100 °C were monophasic with a rhombohedral structure, however, completely cubic BaZrO3-based solid solutions were obtained at 1200 °C. A study of the sinterability of BaZr0.9Y0.1O3 and BaCe0.9Y0.1O3-based pellets was performed under non-isothermal conditions within a temperature range of 25 to 1200 °C. The partial substitution of barium for calcium in the (Ba1-xCax) (M0.9Y0.1) O3, M = Ce, Zr solid solution improved the sinterability of the samples in comparison to the initial BaCe0.9Y0.1O3 or BaZr0.9Y0.1O3. The relative density of calcium-modified BaCe0.9Y0.1O3-based samples reached approximately 95 to 97 % after sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h in air. The same level of relative density was achieved after sintering calcium-modified BaZr0.9Y0.1O3 at 1600 °C for 2 h. Analysis of the electrical conductivity from both series of investigated materials showed that the highest ionic conductivity, in air and wet 5 % H2 in Ar, was attained for the compositions of x = 0.02 to 0.05 (Ba1-xCax)(M0.9Y0.1)O3, M = Zr, Ce. The oxygen reduction reaction on the interface Pt│BaM0.9Y0.1O3, M = Ce, Zr was investigated using Pt microelectrodes. Selected samples of (Ba1-xCax) (M0.9Y0.1)O3, M = Zr, Ce were tested as ceramic electrolytes in hydrogen-oxygen solid oxide fuel cells operating at temperatures of 700 to 850 °C.