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Piotr Rogowski and Andrzej Rakowski

Abstract

Absolute pitch is a unique feature of the auditory memory which makes it possible for its possessors to recognize the musical name (chroma) of a tone. Six musicians with absolute pitch, selected from a group of 250 music students as best scoring in musical pitch-naming tests, identified the chroma of residue pitch produced by harmonic complex tones with several lower partials removed (residual sounds). The data show that the percentage of correct chroma recognitions decreases as the lowest physically existent harmonic in the spectrum is moved higher. According to our underlying hypothesis the percentage of correct chroma recognitions corresponds to the pitch strength of the investigated tones. The present results are compared with pitch strength values derived in an experiment reported by Houtsma and Smurzynski (1990) for tones same as those used in this study but investigated with the use of a different method which consisted in identification of musical intervals between two successive tones. For sounds comprising only harmonics of very high order the new method yields a very low pitch recognition level of about 20% while identification of musical intervals remains stable at a level of about 60%.

Open access

Andrzej Rakowski and Piotr Rogowski

Abstract

This paper has two distinct parts. Section 1 includes general discussion of the phenomenon of "absolute pitch" (AP), and presentation of various concepts concerning definitions of "full", "partial" and "pseudo" AP. Sections 2-4 include presentation of the experiment concerning frequency range in which absolute pitch appears, and discussion of the experimental results. The experiment was performed with participation of 9 AP experts selected from the population of 250 music students as best scoring in the pitch-naming piano-tone screening tests. Each subject had to recognize chromas of 108 pure tones representing the chromatic musical scale of nine octaves from E0 to D#9. The series of 108 tones was presented to each subject 60 times in random order, diotically, with loudness level about 65 phon. Percentage of correct recognitions (PC) for each tone was computed. The frequency range for the existence of absolute pitch in pure tones, perceived by sensitive AP possessors stretches usually over 5 octaves from about 130.6 Hz (C3) to about 3.951 Hz (B7). However, it was noted that in a single case, the upper boundary of AP was 9.397 Hz (D9). The split-halves method was applied to estimate the reliability of the obtained results.

Open access

Andrzej Rakowski

Abstract

The traditional radiocarbon method widely used in archaeology and geology for chronological purposes can also be used in environmental studies. Combustion of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas, petroleum, etc., in industrial and/or heavily urbanized areas, has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The addition of fossil carbon caused changes of carbon isotopic composition, in particular, a definite decrease of 14C concentration in atmospheric CO2 and other carbon reservoirs (ocean and terrestrial biosphere), known as the Suess effect. Tree rings, leaves, as well as other annual growing plants reflected the changes of radiocarbon concentration in the atmosphere due to processes of photosynthesis and assimilation of carbon from the air. By measuring radiocarbon concentration directly in atmospheric CO2 samples and/or biospheric material growing in industrial and/or highly urbanized areas where high emission of dead carbon is expected, it is possible to estimate the total emission of dead CO2. Based on equations of mass balance for CO2 concentration, stable isotopic composition of carbon and radiocarbon concentration it is possible to calculate CO2 con-centration associated with fossil fuel emission into the atmosphere. The procedure use differences between the radiocarbon concentration and stable isotope composition of carbon observed in clean areas and industrial or/and highly urbanized areas.

Open access

Andrzej Rakowski and Antoni Śliwiński

Abstract

The Committee on Acoustics of the Polish Academy of Sciences was founded in 1964 by the reso lution of the General Assembly of the Polish Academy of Sciences, within its Division of Engineering Sci ences (Division 4). The idea of creating the Committee was brought up by Professor Ignacy Malecki, a distinguished scientist, an academic teacher, and an internationally acclaimed authority on acoustics.