A liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), 4-epi oxytetracycline (4-epi OTC), tetracycline (TC), 4-epi tetracycline (4-epi TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), 4-epi chlortetracycline (4-epi CTC), doxycycline (DC), minocycline (MINO), methacycline (META) and rolitetracycline (ROLI) residues in muscles was developed. The procedure consisted of an oxalic acid extraction followed by protein removal with trichloroacetic acid. Further solid phase clean-up on polymeric (Strata X) reversed phase columns was performed to obtain an extract suitable for LC-MS/MS analysis. The tetracyclines were separated on a C 18 analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 0.01% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid in water in gradient mode. The method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The recoveries of all target compounds were 91.8% – 103.6%. The decision limits were from 109.0 to 119.8 μg/kg and detection capability varied within the range of 122.2 to 137.6 μg/kg, depending on the analyte.
A liquid chromatography method with UV detection for determination of oxytetracycline (OTC) in honey has been developed. The samples were extracted with the solution of oxalic acid. The clean-up procedure was performed by solid phase extraction (SPE) using polymeric Strata X and carboxylic acid cartridges. Chromatographic separation was carried out on the Luna C8 analytical column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.02 M oxalic acid. The method has been successfully validated according to the requirements of the European Decision 2002/657/EC and this method is used in routine control of oxytetracycline in honey samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the presented method were 10 and 12.5 μg/kg, respectively. The developed method has also been verified in quantitative determination of oxytetracycline residues in honey after experimental treatment with this product in bee colonies.
Introduction: Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a natural therapeutic agent with a broad spectrum of activities (antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial). The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid and simple ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of quercetin in milk.
Material and Methods: Sample preparation was based on a liquid-liquid extraction with 0.5% formic acid in acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was performed on a ZORBAX SB-C18 column with methanol and 0.5% formic acid as a mobile phase.
Results: The procedure was successfully validated. The mean recovery of the analyte was 98%, with the corresponding intra- and inter-day variation less than 10% and 15%, respectively, and the repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 3%–7.2% and 6.1%–12%, respectively. The lowest level of quantification was 1.0 μg/kg.
Conclusion: The proposed method was successfully applied in evaluating the pharmacokinetics of quercetin in milk obtained from dairy cows with clinical mastitis after intramammary administration.
The major difficulty in analysis of nitrofurans in feed, feed water, and food of animal origin is that nitrofurans have low molecular weights and fast metabolism. The principal goal of this study was to prepare a procedure for the determination of nitrofurans and their metabolites by a single method in different types of feed, feed water, and food of animal origin.
Material and Methods
Two-gram samples were subjected to hydrolysis and derivatisation processes by addition of hydrochloric acid and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. After incubation the sample was purified by solid phase extraction technique. Nitrofurans were analysed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-MS/MS (UHPLC-MS/MS).
The results of validation fulfil the requirement of the confirmatory criteria according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC regarding apparent recoveries (88.9%–107.3%), repeatability (2.9%–9.4%) and within-laboratory reproducibility (4.4%–10.7%).
The method can be successfully applied to monitor nitrofurans and their metabolites in different matrices.
Introduction: The main problem in determination of chloramphenicol in food of animal origin is a large number of matrices. The main target of this study was to create a method for determination and confirmation of chloramphenicol in products and food of animal origin. Material and Methods: Each 5 g matrix sample was mixed with 5 mL of water and 10 mL of acetonitrile/ethyl acetate, homogenised, and centrifuged. The organic layer was evaporated and redissolved in 6 mL of 4% NaCl. The extract was cleaned up by SPE technique. Chloramphenicol was analysed by LC-MS/MS in electrospray mode. Results: The procedure was validated according to the Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The apparent recoveries were in the range of 92.1% to 107.1% with a repeatability less than 11.0% (4.4%-11.0%) and within-laboratory reproducibility below 13.6% (4.7%-13.6%). Conclusion: The method was successfully validated and proved to be efficient, precise, and useful for quantification of chloramphenicol in more than 20 different matrices.
The use of growth promoters in animal husbandry to increase weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion into muscle has been banned in the European Union since 1988, and under Directive 96/23/EC, surveillance for anabolic steroid hormones is obligatory. The hormones present in animal tissues may be of endogenous origin or may result from illegal administration. Steps have been taken to determine selected steroids in the form of esters in the alternative matrix of animal hair. Their detection in biological material is direct proof of the illegal use of anabolics.
Material and Methods
The procedure for the determination of steroid esters in animal hair, based on digestion, extraction, purification, and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was validated under the current regulations. In total, 348 samples of animal hair were examined using this method.
Good recoveries and precision values (RSD) were obtained during validation. Decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) were in the ranges of 2.57–4.18 μg kg−1 and 4.38–7.12 μg kg−1, respectively. The method met the criteria for confirmation techniques with respect to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.
Testing for steroid esters in animal hair was introduced into the National Residue Control Programme in 2017. Steroid esters were not found in any hair samples above the CCα, which indicates that illegal use of anabolics was not confirmed.
Introduction: The present study is a comprehensive overview of the natural occurrence of 17β-oestradiol and testosterone in serum of cattle in Poland. Material and Methods: The serum samples (n = 826) were collected from cattle within five years. The samples were examined for the presence of oestradiol and testosterone using ELISA or gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results: In 98 samples (24%) 17β-oestradiol was detected above decision limits of applied methods, including five samples over the recommended concentration of 0.1 μg L-1. Of the serum samples taken from cows (≤18 months of age), 95 and 99 percentiles of the animals had 17β-oestradiol concentration below 0.027 and 0.086 μg L-1 and of samples from cows over 18 months of age - below 0.059 and 0.125 μg L-1 respectively. Calculated values for bulls (≤18 months of age) were 0.025 and 0.034 μg L-1 and for the animals older than 18 months of age - 0.035 and 0.041 μg L-1. The natural presence of testosterone was detected in 201 serum samples (48.7%). According to the obtained data, 95% and 99% of cows (≤18 months of age) serum samples had testosterone concentration below 0.05 and 0.23 μg L-1 and the animals over 18 months of age - 0.30 and 0.49 μg L-1, respectively. For bulls these values did not depend on the age of the animals and were in the ranges of 5 - 6.3 μg L-1 (95%) and 11.4 - 12.1 μg L-1 (99%). Conclusion: Our study showed that the threshold values for these hormones in plasma of cattle designated years ago are correct, but they need to be supplemented for animals older than 18 months.
Introduction: In the European Union the use of steroid growth promoters is prohibited under Council Directive 96/22/EC. For effective control of illegal use of natural steroids, highly sensitive analytical methods are required, because sex hormones can be present in very low concentrations in biological samples. The aim of the study was to develop a confirmatory method for the detection of testosterone in bovine serum at ppt level.
Material and Methods: 17β-testosterone and internal standards of 17β-testosterone-d2 were extracted from serum samples with a mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether/petroleum ether and were directly analysed by an LC/MS/MS on QTRAP 5500 instrument with a TurboIon-Spray source operating in a positive ionisation mode. Chromatographic separation was achieved on the analytical column Inertsil® ODS-3 with an isocratic elution using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, and water. Method validation has been carried out in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.
Results: The method was characterised by good recovery (82%) and precision (R.S.D 17 %). Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) was 0.05 μg L−1 and 0.09 μg L−1 respectively. The method met the criteria set out in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for the purpose of confirmation in terms of retention time and ion ratio in the whole range of its application.
Conclusions: The developed method is specific and sensitive, suitable for measuring the natural level of testosterone in blood of cattle and for use in routine control programme for the detection of this hormone in bovine serum.
An in-house reference material of chloramphenicol (CAP) in pigs muscle was prepared from the chloramphenicol treated animals. The incurred muscle material was diluted by mixing with blank muscle sample. The concentration of CAP at the level 0.33 μg kg−1 was reached. For the homogeneity study, 10 random samples were analysed and the results were interpreted by Cochran’s test and the sufficient homogeneity test. Additionally, the samples were tested for their stability according to the following scheme: 1, 7, 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 d. It was confirmed that an appropriate homogeneity and stability of the produced in-house reference material was obtained.
A liquid chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of residues of β-lactams, macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, sulfonamides, and lincosamides in eggs has been described. Analytes were isolated from egg samples by solvent extraction method and extracts were cleaned by filtration on OASIS HLB cartridges. The whole procedure was validated according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The recovery ranged between 86% and 110%. The repeatability was below 16% and within-laboratory reproducibility was lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied in the official control of antibacterial compounds residue in Poland.