Nine dogs with Chiari malformation and syringomyelia, which were subjected to low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test, were described. The results of MRI examinations were presented. The outcomes of pharmacological therapy involving two dogs and surgical treatment of one dog were also described. The applied treatments produced positive short-term outcomes, and they eliminated the clinical symptoms of the disease.
A group of 12 dogs, eight of small breeds and four of medium-sized breeds, were used in the study. Prior to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, all dogs were subjected to neurological, laboratory, and electroencephalographic examinations, and trans-fontanel ultrasonography was additionally performed in two patients. The acquired obstructive hydrocephalus was diagnosed in two dogs, idiopathic obstructive hydrocephalus - in four patients, obstructive congenital hydrocephalus - in five dogs, and hydrocephalus ex vacuo- in one patient. Ten dogs were put under the pharmacological therapy, and in two patients the condition was treated surgically. MRI proved to be a valuable tool that supports selection of the appropriate pharmacological and surgical treatment. MRI scans also appear to be useful in monitoring an effectiveness of the applied form of treatment.
The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme catalyses the first stage of biosynthesis of prostanoids, proteins that are implicated in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. The expression of COX-2 increases significantly during pathological processes accompanied by inflammation, pain and fever. Overexpression of COX-2 was determined in tumour tissues, which suggests that this enzyme participates in oncogenesis. In this paper the topics discussed are mechanisms regulating COX-2 expression, COX isoforms, their role in the body and the oncogenic mechanisms triggered by the overexpression of COX-2, including inhibition of apoptosis, intensification of neoangiogenesis, increased metastatic capacity, and weakening of the immune system. The significance of and the mechanisms by which COX-2 participates in oncogenesis have been studied intensively in recent years. The results are highly promising, and they expand our understanding of the complex processes and changes at the molecular, cellular and tissue level that promote oncogenesis and cancer progression. Notwithstanding the knowledge already gleaned, many processes and mechanisms have not yet been elucidated in human medicine and, in particular, in veterinary medicine. Further research is required to develop effective tumour diagnostic methods and treatment procedures for humans and animals.
In canine and feline populations, the number of neoplasm cases continues to increase around the world. Attempts are being made in centres of research to identify new biomarkers that speed up and improve the quality of oncological diagnostics and therapy in human and animal tumour patients. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a promising biomarker with increasing relevance to human oncology, but as yet with less application in veterinary oncology. The expression of COX-2 increases significantly during pathological processes involving inflammation, pain or fever. It is also overexpressed in humans presenting various types of tumours and in selected types of tumours in animals, particularly in dogs. This article discusses the expression of COX-2 in canine and feline tumours, the importance of COX-2 as a biomarker with diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic and predictive relevance in oncology, and the clinical significance of inhibiting COX-2 overexpression in tumours.
Twenty bitches with acute endometritis-pyometra complex (EPC) and 20 clinically healthy bitches were examined. The following coagulation parameters were determined in haemostatic evaluations: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen concentrations (FBG), D-dimer concentrations (D-D), antithrombin activity (AT), and blood platelet counts (PLT). Morphological and biochemical blood parameters were also analysed. Examinations of animals affected by EPC revealed blood coagulation and fibrinolytic disorders, and the noted results (PT 13.7 ±1.06 s, aPTT 23.4 ±1.04 s, TT 15.6 ±0.68 s, FBG 2.2 g/L, D-D 785.4 ±103.05 μg/L, AT 111.1 ±13.51%, PLT 169.30 ±126.31 103/μL) point to a high risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation. The findings indicate that the coagulation parameters of bitches affected by EPC should be analysed before treatment as the noted disorder can significantly complicate therapy and ovariohysterectomy, and endanger the patients' life.
Blood morphology in dogs infected with intracellular parasites of the genera Babesia and Ehrlichia was examined. The parasites were detected in peripheral blood smears stained by the May-Grünwald-Giemsa method. During the parasitic invasion, a decrease in thrombocyte counts was observed. This was connected with forming platelet aggregates. It was noted that the number of giant platelets simultaneously increased.