Andrzej Polski, Karol Iwaniak, Karolina Sobotka-Polska, Magdalena Rogowska and Ewa Poleszak
With the rapid development of computer technology, gaming has become more popular, and young people spend more and more time playing such games. It is thought that this a major factor responsible for the lowered physical activity of today's society. For a better understanding of the issue, we assessed how many students spend their free time playing video games, and how this form of recreation affects their levels of physical activity. The investigation of the relationship between physical activity and playing computer games was undertaken via a questionnaire containing 16 questions, and this was applied to a representative sample of 138 students drawn from Lublin’s universities. The results of this show that males are more physically active (85% compared to 75% women). However, only 9% men and 13% women train every day. To keep the body in shape, the most common activity for the respondents is aerobics training (approx. 30%), walking and cycling. Such exercise is performed to improve or keep in shape, and as a form of relaxation. However, one third of all respondents play video games, 70% of these are males and only 16% are females. What is more, our results show that there was no correlation between level of physical activity and gaming. In both groups, about 80% of all respondents are physically active. Yet, among the players, there are more overweight people (28%), as compared to 10% in the non-player group. Still, players, in contrast to popular opinion, are more active than non-playing people. No association was found between playing computer games and health problems.
Andrzej Polski, Regina Kasperek, Karolina Sobotka-Polska and Ewa Poleszak
Pain is a symptom of many diseases and significantly affects the quality of life, so researchers are constantly seeking new substances to be used as analgesics. Other, easier way is to combine already known drugs which cause synergistic effects greater than additive, so that probability of drug-specific side effects can be reduced. Researchers showed that caffeine can be an effective analgesic adjuvant enhancing antinociceptive effect of ibuprofen in animals and humans. By using modern drug technology methods tablets containing well-soluble ibuprofen salt and caffeine can be easily prepared. Thanks to that combination, the therapeutic dose of ibuprofen can be lowered and the side effects may be reduced.
Aliya Aryzbekova, Konrad Tomasz Juszkiewicz, Donald Eduard Burgess, Andrzej Polski and Ewa Poleszak
Peptic ulcers are a serious problem worldwide, and affect about 4 million people each year. Their etiology is connected with the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the act of smoking, drinking alcohol, being stress, and taking excessively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain and fatigue, while less frequent symptoms include vomiting and weight loss. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for about 80% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. In this work, an analysis is made of a correlation between stomach or duodenal ulcer and gender, residence and number of patients hospitalized in the Almaty hospital №1, from 2009-2012, in order to learn about trends in the incidence of these diseases in Kazakhstan. A total number of 950 patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, in 2009-2012, were questioned. The patient’s residence, gender and stomach or duodenal ulcer problem were taken into account in the study. The result of this work reveals that the largest amount of hospitalized patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers came from urban areas. Moreover, more women than men suffered from peptic ulcers. Furthermore, the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to duodenal ulcers did not show any variation throughout the study. However, the least number of patients suffering from gastric ulcers was noticed in December 2009, and the greatest was in October and November 2011. The obtained data show that ulcers are a serious problem in Kazakhstan.
Magdalena Rogowska, Karol Iwaniak, Andrzej Polski, Karolina Slawinska, Karolina Sobotka-Polska, Joanna Modrzewska and Ewa Poleszak
Metamizole is an effective non-opioid analgesic drug used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Due to induced potentially life-threatening blood disorders, metamizole was withdrawn from market in many parts of the world, however, it is one of the most popular analgesics in Poland that is available as an over the counter drug. Patients tend to prefer capsules over tablets, as they are easier to swallow and taste better. The powder-filled capsules also have greater bioavailability and require less excipients, as compared to tablets. Polymic excipients are mainly used in capsule filling, and have influence upon the physico-chemical properties of the hard gelatin capsules and the powder formulation. The aim of the study was to determine whether various combinations of polymers impact the disintegration time and pharmaceutical availability of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium. The results of our work demonstrated that the 80% of all active substance was released in all tested formulations within 15 minutes. Herein, the capsule containing lactose monohydrate had the longest release (4% after 2 min.), while capsules containing mannitol had the fastest release (81.2% after 2 min.). Moreover, the addition of HPMC to capsules with lactose brought about a slight increase in the metamizole release rate, while the addition of PVP 30 to capsules with microcrystalline cellulose slightly accelerated release. This data suggests that the use of different polymers in capsules formulation brings about changes in the physical properties of powders and modifies the release profile of metamizole. In our study, the most preferred formulation was one containing microcrystalline cellulose (good powder properties and fairly fast release).
Saule Amangeldykyzy, Aidana Nurlybekkyzy Nurlybek, Aigerim Nurlybekkyzy Nurlan, Konrad T. Juszkiewicz, Andrzej Polski, Ulzhan Baurzhankyzy Seisembay, Adiya Maksatovna Mukasheva, Urumbaeva Kathira Umirzakovna and Ewa Poleszak
The ongoing control of virulent bacteria strains is a challenge for today’s medicine. An example of this, is one widely used drug employed in treating less serious external oral and ocular bacterial infections. This is a gel containing both cetalkonium chloride and choline salicylate. However, whether in the era of expanding bacterial resistance this gel is still effective, is not clear. Hence, in our work, its antibacterial effect was studied against 13 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 strains of Staphylococcus spp. and 6 strains of Streptococcus spp. drawn from the collection of the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology, Kazakh National Medical University, as well as against 30 strains of Staphylococcus spp. recently isolated from Kazakh medical students. This work demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to this preparation in all samples, while the sensitivity of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. was almost halved, compared to untreated samples. An interesting discovery was the greater resistance of strains obtained from student volunteers than from the collection. However, despite the evident resistance of some strains to the combined cetalkonium chloride and choline salicylate gel, we put forward that it can still be used in less serious external bacterial infections.