The purpose of the work was to characterize the variously used humus in the south-eastern part of the Lublin region. The basic research material were data taken from the literature on the subject. Standard soil science methods were used in the study. The humus level of humus varieties ranged from 30 to 80 cm. The researched molds were formed from loess deposits, which most often showed graining of clay dust. Organic carbon content in humus levels did not exceed 2.9%. The surface levels of the analyzed molds showed clear decalcification. The CaCO3 content in the loess mother rock was a maximum of 15.5%. These are soils with high saturation of the sorption complex with basic cations. The content of available phosphorus and potassium in humus levels was low and medium. According to Systematics of Poland’s soils (2019), the analyzed molds mainly represented leached molds and typical molds, while according to the international soil classification WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015) they are primarily Phaeozems. All the analyzed humus plants belong to soils with the highest utility value. Phenomena lowering the quality of molds in the Lublin region related to human activity are the use of improper agrotechnics, and above all water surface erosion. The unfavorable processes are favored by the undulating terrain and the grain size of the soils studied, characteristic for this area.
Multi-proxy analysis (sedimentological, palaeobotanical, geochemical data and results of radiocarbon dating) of the biogenic sediments from a small mire ecosystem in the Sandomierz Basin (SE Poland) is presented. The ecosystem contains a full hydroseral sequence from minerotrophic to ombrotrophic wetland. It is one of the few sites in this region which is so thoroughly investigated in terms of the palaeoenvironmental record. Changes in the water supply of the mire area, and consequently the changes in the plant and sediment succession, were well correlated with the regional tendencies in precipitation and temperature during the Late Glacial/Holocene transition and in the Holocene. Human impact is very well recorded in pollen diagram from the Subboreal period.