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Andrzej Parzonko


Subject and purpose of work: The objectives of the elaboration are the following: 1) to analyze the regional changes (at the level of poviats) in the number of farms involved in milk production over the period 2002-2010; 2) to present the main factors affecting the ongoing changes in Polish farms oriented at milk production; 3) to determine the impact of the measure 121. “Modernization of agricultural holdings” under the RDP 2007-2013 and the applied system of direct subsidies for the development of farms oriented at milk production. Materials and methods: The work has been prepared on the basis of the analysis and synthesis of the source literature, statistical data collected and the author’s own reflections. Results: In Poland, in the years 2002-2010 there was a distinct regional differentiation in the pace of the ongoing changes in the dairy sector. The regions, where we observe the development of milk production, include almost the entire Podlaskie Province, the northern part of the Mazowieckie Province and the south-eastern part of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Province. Conclusions: Within the RDP 2007-2013, significant funds were allocated to support the modernization of agricultural farms. Mainly under the measure 121 “Modernization of agricultural holdings” the investments were carried out in relation to the purchase of mobile equipment, they represented 89% of all investments. This was partly due to the actual demand and administrative procedures that stimulated these types of investments.

Open access

Monika E. Czerwińska, Katarzyna Duszak, Andrzej Parzonko and Anna K. Kiss


Plants belonging to the family Oleaceae have been traditionally used in treatment of various inflammatory skin disorders. One of the most well-known species is Olea europaea L. (olive), cultivated in the Mediterranean countries. Another species is Ligustrum vulgare L. (common privet), occurring particularly in Northern Europe and Asia.

The aim of the study was a comparison of the composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from leaves of O. europaea and L. vulgare (HPLC-DAD-MS), and determination of the total content of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the content of the major compound, oleuropein. Secondly, we aimed to study the protective effect of extracts on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by human fibroblast cells (NHDF), cell viability (MTT assay), and apoptosis rate (Annexin V/propidium iodide staining) after UVA-irradiation.

The phytochemical analysis allowed us to identify compounds belonging to the groups of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and secoiridoids in the extracts. The compounds from the group of lignans (olivil) were identified as being unique to O. europaea extracts. Echinacoside, ligustroflavone and ligustaloside A were identified in L. vulgare extracts in contrast to olive preparations. It was established that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from leaves of both species, except the privet aqueous extract at a concentration of 5 μg/ml, did not show any significant inhibition of ROS production after UVA-irradiation in the model of NHDF cell line. The aqueous extracts of both species at concentrations of 5 and 25 μg/ml had a protective effect on the viability of UVA-treated cells in contrast to the ethanolic extract.

In conclusion, no significant difference in the activity of olive and privet leaf extracts has been observed, which suggests that both plant materials’ extracts, particularly aqueous ones, are effective herbal medicines and photoprotectors, which – to some extent – confirms the use of their preparations in skin disorders.