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Open access

Wacław Dziurzyński, Andrzej Krach and Teresa Pałka

Abstract

In the paper the results of investigations aimed at further identification of the phenomena occurring in abandoned workings and connected with the flow of air-gas (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon oxidation products) mixture with taking into consideration the impact of supplied mineral substances on the processes of self-heating of the coal left in goaves were presented. The known and successfully used method for the prevention of fires in abandoned workings is the technology of filling goaf with an ash-air mixture, which also raises the issue of the effective use of that mixture. The computer, i.e. digital simulation methods being developed and intended for the purpose of the process discussed here are a good complement of the use of that technology. A developed mathematical model describing the process of additional sealing of gob with wet slurry supplied with three pipelines is based on the balance of volume of the supplied mixture and contained in the body created in goaves. The form of that body was assessed on the basis of the observation results available in literature and the results of model investigations. The calculation examples carried out for the the longwall area and its goaf ventilated with the “U” system allow to state that the introduced modification of the mathematical model describing the flow of the mixture of air, gases, and wet slurry with consideration of the coal burning process in the fire source area was verified positively. The digital prognostic simulations have confirmed a vital impact of the wet slurry supplied into the goaf on the processes of coal burning and also the change of rate and volume flow rate of the air mixture in goaf. As a complement to the above it should be noted that such elements as the place of the slurry supply in comparison with the longwall inclination or fire source area location is of great importance for the effectiveness of the fire prevention used. The development of computer/ digital simulation methods requires further investigations of the model adopted in this study. Those investigations should be aimed at making credible the theoretical model of the mixture flow through porous medium and the supplied mineral material. Such investigations will allow to verify the body form based on the mixture parameters such as humidity, viscosity, and fluidity and depending on the properties of the porous medium. Further development of the modelling of the phenomena discussed in this paper should be based on the methods of use of the description of the flow of fluids and slurry on the basis of 3D models.

Open access

Wacław Dziurzyński, Andrzej Krach and Teresa Pałka

Abstract

Forecasting a ventilation process is based on two factors: using a validated software (Dziurzyński et al., 2011; Pritchard, 2010) and a properly prepared database encompassing the parameters describing the flow of air and gases, compatible with the adopted mathematical model of the VentGraph software (Dziurzyński, 2002). With a body of measurement data and a mathematical model for computer calculations and air flow simulation at our disposal, we proceed to develop a numerical model for a chosen network of mine headings. Preparing a numerical model of a ventilation network of a given mine requires providing a collection of data regarding the structure of the network and the physical properties of its elements, such as headings, fans, or stoppings. In the case of fire simulations, it is also necessary to specify the parameters describing the seat of a fire and the properties of the rocks of which the rock mass is comprised. The methods which are currently applied to this task involve manual ventilation measurements performed in headings; the results obtained in the course of these measurements constitute a basis for determining physical parameters, such as the aerodynamic resistance of a heading, density of the flow of air, or natural depression. Experience shows that - due to difficulties regarding accessibility of headings, as well as the considerable lengths of the latter - there are some nodes and headings in mines where such measurements are not performed. Thus, an attempt was made to develop a new methodology that would provide the missing data on the basis of some other available information concerning - for example - the air density, the geometry of headings and elevations. The adopted methodology suggests that one should start with balancing the air mass fluxes within the structure of a network of headings. The next step is to compile a database concerning the pressure values in the network nodes, based on the measurement results - and provide the missing pressure values on the basis of the available results of measurements carried out in adjacent nodes, as well as the pressure value calculated on the basis of the heading geometry and the given volumetric flow rate. The present paper discusses the methodology of compensating and balancing the volumetric air flow rates within a network of headings (Chapter 2) and the methodology of determining pressure values (Chapter 3) in the nodes of the network. The developed calculation algorithms - verified by means of sample calculations performed for a selected area of a mine ventilation network - were introduced into the VentGraph software system. The calculation results were presented in tabular form. The Summary section discusses the minuses and pluses of the adopted methodology.

Open access

Rafał Rajczyk, Jurand Bień, Henryk Palka, Andrzej Pogodziński and Hubert Smorąg

Abstract

According to data of the Central Statistical Office, the amount of sludge produced in municipal wastewater treatment plants in 2010 amounted to 526000 Mg d.m. The forecast of municipal sewage sludge amount in 2015 according to KPGO2014 will reach 642400 Mg d.m. and is expected to increase in subsequent years. Significant amounts of sludge will create problems due to its utilization. In order to solve this problem the use of thermal methods for sludge utilization is expected. According to the National Waste Management Plan nearly 30% of sewage sludge mass should be thermally utilized by 2022. The article presents the results of co-combustion of coal and municipal sewage sludge in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler made by SEFAKO and located in the Municipal Heating Company in Morag. Four tests of hard coal and sewage sludge co-combustion have been conducted. Boiler performance, emissions and ash quality were investigated.

Open access

Anna Czajkowska, Krzysztof Mazurek, Andrzej Wiśniewski, Anna Kęska, Joanna Tkaczyk, Krzysztof Krawczyk, Magdalena Pałka and Tomasz Mazurek

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between low birth mass and concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a cardiovascular risk factor in young women with various levels of physical activity.

Materials and methods: 102 female students aged 19.7 ± 0.8 (18.6-23.0) were included. The study group was divided according to the declared physical activity: high physical activity (HPA, n = 69) and low physical activity (LPA, n = 33). Anthropometric indices were measured: body mass, height, hip and waist circumference. hsCRP levels were obtained from venous blood samples. Birth body mass (BBM) and birth height were collected from medical documentation.

Results: Women with low BBM and LPA had a significantly higher concentration of hsCRP than women with low BBM and HPA, as well as women with normal BBM.

Conclusions: Low birth mass together with low physical activity is a strong predictor of raised concentration of hsCRP, which correlates with an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Regular physical activity in women with low birth mass may prevent an increased hsCRP concentration, and as a result decrease the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

Open access

Elżbieta Welker, Jan Reda and Andrzej Pałka

Abstract

The development of navigation systems requires more and more accurate base data. Currently, attention is paid to utilization of geophysical fields — gravitational and magnetic ones — for navigation purposes. The Earth’s magnetic field distribution — both onshore and offshore — is complicated and variable in time. Hence, it is essential to precisely know the secular variations in the area of interest. In the case of Baltic Sea, this involves establishing (re-establishing) of a marine network of secular points (repeat stations) and regular magnetic measurements of the three independent components of the Earth’s magnetic field. Such measurements require equipment that ensures not only high stability, but also information about sensors’ orientation in relation to geographic north and to the level. This article presents a new project of the Baltic network of repeat stations and gives a solution for the instruments usable for quasi-absolute magnetic measurements.

Open access

A.M. Ryniewicz, Ł. Bojko, A. Ryniewicz, P. Pałka and W. Ryniewicz

Abstract

Endoprosthesis stem fractures are among the rarest complications that occur after hip joint arthroplasty. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causes of the fractures of the Aura II stem neck, which is an element of an endoprosthesis implanted in a patient. In order to achieve it, a radiogram was evaluated, the FEM analysis was carried out for the hip joint replaced using the Aura II prosthesis and scanning tests as well as a chemical analysis were performed for the focus of fatigue. The tests performed indicate that the most probable causes leading to the fatigue fracture of the Aura II stem under examination were material defects in the process of casting and forging (forging the material with delamination and the presence of brittle oxides and carbides) that resulted in a significant reduction of strength and resistance to corrosion. In the light of an unprecedented stem neck fracture, this information should be an indication for non-destructive tests of ready-made stems aiming to discover the material and technological defects that may arise in the process of casting and drop forging.

Open access

Ewelina Kubicz, Bożena Jasińska, Bożena Zgardzińska, Tomasz Bednarski, Piotr Białas, Eryk Czerwiński, Aleksander Gajos, Marek Gorgol, Daria Kamińska, Łukasz Kapłon, Andrzej Kochanowski, Grzegorz Korcyl, Paweł Kowalski, Tomasz Kozik, Wojciech Krzemień, Szymon Niedźwiecki, Marek Pałka, Lech Raczyński, Zenon Rajfur, Zbigniew Rudy, Oleksandr Rundel, Neha Gupta Sharma, Michał Silarski, Artur Słomski, Adam Strzelecki, Anna Wieczorek, Wojciech Wiślicki, Marcin Zieliński and Paweł Moskal

Abstract

Results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and microscopic studies on simple microorganisms, brewing yeasts, are presented. Lifetime of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) were found to change from 2.4 to 2.9 ns (longer-lived component) for lyophilized and aqueous yeasts, respectively. Also hygroscopicity of yeasts in time was examined, allowing to check how water – the main component of the cell – affects PALS parameters, thus lifetime of o-Ps were found to change from 1.2 to 1.4 ns (shorter-lived component) for the dried yeasts. The time sufficient to hydrate the cells was found below 10 hours. In the presence of liquid water, an indication of reorganization of yeast in the molecular scale was observed. Microscopic images of the lyophilized, dried, and wet yeasts with best possible resolution were obtained using inverted microscopy (IM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) methods. As a result, visible changes to the surface of the cell me mbrane were observed in ESEM images.

Open access

Anna Wieczorek, Bożena Zgardzińska, Bożena Jasińska, Marek Gorgol, Tomasz Bednarski, Piotr Białas, Eryk Czerwiński, Aleksander Gajos, Daria Kamińska, Łukasz Kapłon, Andrzej Kochanowski, Grzegorz Korcyl, Paweł Kowalski, Tomasz Kozik, Wojciech Krzemień, Ewelina Kubicz, Szymon Niedźwiecki, Marek Pałka, Lech Raczyński, Zbigniew Rudy, Oleksandr Rundel, Neha Gupta Sharma, Michał Silarski, Artur Słomski, Adam Strzelecki, Wojciech Wiślicki, Marcin Zieliński and Paweł Moskal

Abstract

The polystyrene doped with 2,5-diphenyloxazole as a primary fluor and 2-(4-styrylphenyl)benzoxazole as a wavelength shifter prepared as a plastic scintillator was investigated using positronium probe in wide range of temperatures from 123 to 423 K. Three structural transitions at 260, 283, and 370 K were found in the material. In the o-Ps intensity dependence on temperature, the significant hysteresis is observed. Heated to 370 K, the material exhibits the o-Ps intensity variations in time.

Open access

Lech Raczyński, Paweł Moskal, Paweł Kowalski, Wojciech Wiślicki, Tomasz Bednarski, Piotr Białas, Eryk Czerwiński, Aleksander Gajos, Łukasz Kapłon, Andrzej Kochanowski, Grzegorz Korcyl, Jakub Kowal, Tomasz Kozik, Wojciech Krzemień, Ewelina Kubicz, Szymon Niedźwiecki, Marek Pałka, Zbigniew Rudy, Piotr Salabura, Neha Gupta-Sharma, Michał Silarski, Artur Słomski, Jerzy Smyrski, Adam Strzelecki, Anna Wieczorek, Marcin Zieliński and Natalia Zoń

Abstract

Nowadays, in positron emission tomography (PET) systems, a time of flight (TOF) information is used to improve the image reconstruction process. In TOF-PET, fast detectors are able to measure the difference in the arrival time of the two gamma rays, with the precision enabling to shorten significantly a range along the line-of-response (LOR) where the annihilation occurred. In the new concept, called J-PET scanner, gamma rays are detected in plastic scintillators. In a single strip of J-PET system, time values are obtained by probing signals in the amplitude domain. Owing to compressive sensing (CS) theory, information about the shape and amplitude of the signals is recovered. In this paper, we demonstrate that based on the acquired signals parameters, a better signal normalization may be provided in order to improve the TOF resolution. The procedure was tested using large sample of data registered by a dedicated detection setup enabling sampling of signals with 50-ps intervals. Experimental setup provided irradiation of a chosen position in the plastic scintillator strip with annihilation gamma quanta.