Possible Optimization of Integrated Avionics Systems with Regard to Errors of Air Data Unit Sensors
This paper presents errors of electronic static and dynamic pressure sensors (used in air data units in military aviation) and their impact on errors of calculated piloting-navigation parameters such as the flight air speed and altitude. Selected problems and possible optimization of these errors in avionics systems integrated on the basis of a digital data bus (e.g. ARINC-429 and MIL-1553B) are presented. The paper presents also accredited research base of the AFIT Pressure Measurement Laboratory and ways of possible corrections of errors of pressure sensors used at air data units.
Możliwości Optymalizacji Zintegrowanych Systemów Awionicznych w Zakresie Błędów Czujników Danych Aerodynamicznych
W artykule omówiono błędy elektronicznych czujników ciśnienia statycznego i różnicowego (wykorzystywanych w centralach danych aerodynamicznych stosowanych w lotnictwie wojskowym) oraz ich wpływ na błędy obliczanych parametrów pilotażowo-nawigacyjnych w postaci prędkości i wysokości lotu. Przedstawiono wybrane problemy i możliwości optymalizacji wartości tych błędów w systemach awionicznych integrowanych na bazie cyfrowej szyny danych (m.in. ARINC-429 i MIL-1553B). Przedstawiono bazę badawczą akredytowanego Laboratorium Pomiaru Ciśnienia ITWL oraz możliwości korekcji błędów czujników ciśnień wykorzystywanych w centralach danych aerodynamicznych.
Methods of Checking the Reliability of Software Applications in the Avionic Systems Integrated Along the Digital Databus MIL-1553B
This The paper presents results of research that was carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology (ITWL) with respect to test whether information in the avionic systems integrated along the digital databus MIL-1553B is processed correctly. The second part goes into details related to methods that are used in the ITWL to test the MIL-1553B databus on the stages when start up and validation of an integrated avionic system are carried out, in particular those that were applied for upgrading of aircrafts operated by the Air Forces of the Republic of Poland.
Testing Methods of Checking the Correctness of Information Processing in the Avionic systems Integrated Along the Digital Databus MIL-1553B
The paper presents results of research that was carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology (ITWL) with respect to test whether information in the avionic systems integrated along the digital databus MIL-1553B is processed correctly. The general part of the study deals with basic properties of the MIL-1553B databus and typical methods that are used to protect it from possible damages. In addition, standards procedures applicable to check correctness of data processing to the standard MIL-STD-1553B are also outlined. The second part goes into details related to methods that are used in the ITWL to test the MIL-1553B databus on the stages when startup and validation of an integrated avionic system are carried out, in particular those that were applied for upgrading of aircrafts operated by the Air Forces of the Republic of Poland.
Metody Testowania Poprawności Przetwarzania Informacji W Systemach Awionicznych Zintegrowanych Na Bazie Cyfrowej Szyny Danych Mil-1553B
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań przeprowadzonych w Instytucie Technicznym Wojsk Lotniczych (ITWL) w zakresie metod testowania poprawności przetwarzania informacji w systemach awionicznych zintegrowanych na bazie cyfrowej szyny danych MIL-1553B. W części ogólnej omówiono podstawowe właściwości szyny MIL-1553B oraz standardowe metody zabezpieczeń przed jej ewentualnymi uszkodzeniami. Podano również standardowe procedury stosowane do testowania poprawności przetwarzania danych według standardu MIL-STD-1553B. W części szczegółowej przedstawiono metody testowania szyny MIL-1553B stosowane w ITWL na etapie uruchamiania i walidacji zintegrowanego systemu awionicznego w ramach prac związanych z modernizacją awioniki statków powietrznych wykorzystywanych w Siłach Zbrojnych RP.
The most advantageous geometry of the warp feeding system was determined from the viewpoint of compensating temporary changes in the warp length during the technological cycle of a four-comb warp-knitting machine. Dynamic simulations of the feeding system were carried out for 3 different lengths of the shift of the slider with a guide bar – designating variants (series) of the cross-sectional sizes of the 3D knitted fabrics. The courses of instantaneous warp tensions during the operating cycle of the warp-knitting machine were presented. Limit dynamic loads of the warp were determined and presented as a function of natural frequency of the whip roller. Based on the criterion of the smallest dynamic loads of the warp, the optimum natural frequencies of the whip roller were determined. In the analyzed range of the whip roller parameters, they are 3–6 times greater than the operation frequency of the warp-knitting machine.
The article presents selected results of the analytical work carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology regarding the possibility of computer matching systems, digital display and analogue devices, both in the static states and in dynamic states while manoeuvring the aircraft. On the example of parameter of vertical speeds provided a method of matching the indications for the helicopter Mi-17-1V with built helmet-mounted display system of flight data SWPL-1 Cyclops (developed by the Air Force Institute of Technology and cooperating with analogue avionics). Adjusting the display of vertical speed achieved by an inertial element of first row, implemented programmatically in the computer graphics KG-1.
On the other hand, method of adjusting of indications on the information presented in the helmet-mounted cueing system NSC-1 Orion (built in the Air Force Institute of Technology for helicopter W-3PL Capercaillie) and obtained from the integrated avionics system (with digital avionics), exemplified by magnetic heading (obtained from heading layout KCS-305) and geographic heading (obtained from inertial navigation system EGI-3000).
Adjusting of indications realized by introducing amendments to the indications of the multifunctional monitor MW-1, translucent display HUD and helmet-mounted display WDN-1 (in the form of elected declination, implemented programmatically on the computer mission KM-1) and the amendments to the magnetic deviation (introduced periodically to heading compensator layout KCS-305).
The paper presents selected results of the work carried out at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) in the scope of computer diagnostic tests of the SWPL-1 Cyklop helmet mounted flight parameters display system. This system has been designed in such a way that it warns the pilot of dangerous situations occurring on board the helicopter and threatening the flight safety (WARN) or faults (FAIL), which inform about a failure in given on-board equipment. The SWPL-1 system has been awarded the Prize of the President of the Republic of Poland during the 17. International Defense Industry Exhibition in Kielce.
The article presents the selected methods of identifying static and dynamic properties of the measuring paths to the extent necessary for the proper integration of on-board systems with the helmet-mounted flight parameter display system. It presents the methods of identifying static and dynamic properties of the WR-10MK on board variometer as one of more difficult identification elements. Its identification was carried out on the basis of the basic dependencies of the International Standard Atmosphere and the instruments construction’s parameters. It built a mathematical model describing the physical phenomena associated with vertical speed measurement. This model differs from the models found in the literature in terms of detail and description accuracy. On this basis, in the Simulink environment, it built a simulation model corresponding to its mathematical model. The non-linear model was the starting point for the construction of the linearized model based on the operator transmittance. The developed models were evaluated for errors of vertical speed’s dynamic indications. This allowed assessing the usefulness of the individual models for further works on ensuring the correlation of indications of the on-board variometer and the SWPL-1 helmet-mounted flight parameter display system. The presented simulation models include design details, as well as the characteristics of technological errors and disturbances of a stochastic nature. Another approach to the issue of identification is to use the characteristics provided by the manufacturer in the form of approximate characteristics of a module.
The paper presents the structure and basic properties of the SWPL-1 helmet-mounted flight parameter display system, constructed for the Mi-17 helicopter with analogue systems and on-board instruments. It describes the basic components of the SWPL-1 system and on board components cooperating with the SWPL-1 system necessary to ensure the imaging system’s operation (including the ADU-3200 central unit for aerodynamic data and the GPS-155XL satellite signals receiver). It presents the architecture, the principle of operation, and the main constituents of the SWPL-1 helmet-mounted flight parameter system, as well as the standards of data transmission used in digital communication between the SWPL-1 system and on-board systems (installed on the Mi-17 helicopter). It describes the scope and manner of pilot and navigation data presentation as well as control of drive unit operation parameters in detail. It presents selected optimization methods for tasks executed in the helmet mounted system’s life cycle. The particular stages of the life cycle were described in detail, from the earliest stages of needs identification, through the analytic and conceptual phase, then the implementation stage, and ending with the operation stage. It introduces tasks for optimization and related methods into the process of creating the new system at every stage of its implementation. It presents one of the methods of multi-criteria optimization based on the experts’ assessment of choice of a variant of the helmet-mounted flight parameter display system’s hardware architecture in detail.