The continuous technological development requires the use of modern materials also in agricultural engineering. Knowledge of the characteristics of tribological materials pairs cooperating with each other is useful for developing sliding nodes of agricultural machinery. Tribological properties of materials should be assessed for selection of technological materials beyond the economic criterion. The article presents analysis of the characteristics of tribological ball-on-disc wear of polymeric materials used as sliding elements for farm machines. Tribological tests were carried out under dry friction for a polymer-metal pair, and a wear rate and friction coefficient of the sample; the signs of wear were submitted to SEM observations.
The objective of the paper is to determine the optimal geometric parameters of the windshield device limiting the spray drift by wind in herbicides spraying. Tests were carried out with the use of the planning methods of experiments and statistical methods of processing of the obtained results. The result of the research consisted in obtaining structural parameters of the windshield made in the shape of gratings with rectangular boards. It was found out that this device may be used at the wind speed exceeding agrotechnological sizes. The research results will be used in the work on devices protecting against wind at a precise herbicides spraying.
The objective of the paper was to evaluate the precision agriculture technology on the territory of Podlaskie Voivodeship. Research material consisted of data from the survey carried out in 100 randomly selected farms located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The concept of “precision agriculture” is known among the surveyed farmers. Based on the research which was carried out, a relation between the surface area of the farm, education and age of respondents was reported. Precision agriculture technology is more popular among farmers who are less than 40 years old, who have higher education and big agricultural farms. Majority of farmers participating in the survey carries out regular research on the soil richness. Moreover, 46% uses in their farms modern technologies for plant production, only 10% uses the system of positioning and 8% of the investigated farms uses the system for guiding agricultural machines, 14% of the investigated farmers uses the system for parallel guiding of a tractor, less than 40% applies the system of variable dosing of fertilizers and plant protection substances. Majority of the investigated farmers claims that new technologies are necessary and they should be applied; however, they indicate too high costs and distribution of farms as the main reason for limitations.
Photovoltaic systems are very efficient concerning proper utilization of solar radiation. However, the nanotechnology solution can replace the photovoltaic by the use of new production technology to lower the price of solar cells to one tenth. Sun provides nearly unlimited energy resource, but existing solar energy harvesting technologies are quite expensive and cannot compete with fossil fuels. The central part of Poland, which represents about 50 percent of the area, gives solar radiation at the level of 1000 kWh·m−2/year. Other new developments, which can help improve existing efficiency of solar systems are: diatoms utilization, artificial photosynthesis, nanoleaves and rotation solar towers.
Properly designed housing buildings, with regard to reduction of a negative influence on environment, are necessary for ensuring sustainable development in agriculture. The objective of this paper was to show the results of environmental conditions research on high milk yield dairy cattle in different housing systems. Temperature and relative humidity of air and concentrations of harmful gases − ammonia and carbon dioxide accompanying them were investigated.
In order to accelerate the process of drying of grass mowed for hay and haylage there are numerous technological treatments: multiple tedding, raking in rolls and turning rolls, mechanical impact on green forage in the process of mowing by the use of presses and windrow scarifiers. Presently mechanical maceration of green forage with mowing is popular. Papilionaceous feed plants are subjected to windrow presses and graminacenous plants to beating working systems. Analysis of various devices for acceleration of the drying process of green forage proves that they are quite complex and expensive on account of considerable material consumption. In order to eliminate the faults in the Russian Scientific and Research Fodder Institute of Wiliams a completely different windrow scarifier for the rotary mower KR-2.4 M was developed. It has a simple structure and it serves for acceleration of field drying of mowed grass in loose rolls. The paper presents the results of the research on a mower with an experimental windrow scarifier
The size of all sensible heat balance components in livestock building varies in time, because it depends on time-varying weather factors. On the example of two buildings, sensible heat balance was shown on a daily basis. Measurements carried out in winter and spring in two livestock buildings with usable attics included measurements of air temperature and humidity inside and outside, air velocity in ventilation channels, and wind speed. Measuring devices were designed to record the results of measurements at intervals of 300s. During each such time interval, sensible heat losses by ventilation, heat losses by permeation through the barrier construction, and the amount of sensible heat produced by the animals were calculated. The results of measurements were shown in graphs. The study is important for the development of animal livestock building.
The solid fraction, according to many researches, is an effective organic fertilizer, the activity of which is at the level of mineral fertilizers and even exceeds their effectiveness, while the use of the liquid fraction does not always give positive results. In the article the optimal concentration of the liquid fraction in water solution for fertilization during cultivation of onion for chives in soil was determined. Sediment from biogas production was obtained at the thermophilic fermentation (50ºC) of cattle manure in the laboratory institution which operated at the periodical regime of loading. Fermentation lasted 25 days. Seven variants of plant feeding were assessed: clean water (control), mineral fertilizers (solution of ammonium nitrate in water in the concentration of 1:25), unsolved liquid biofuel fraction and mixture of liquid fraction from the postferment with water in concentrations of 1:10, 1:50, 1:100, 1:500. It was determined that the highest efficiency was observed in case of fertilization of plants with the mixture of liquid fraction from postferment with concentration of 1:500. Along with the increase of liquid fraction concentration and fertilization of plants with water solution of mineral fertilizers, onion productivity dropped slightly. Fertilization of plants with the liquid fraction from postferment resulted in fractional dying of plants and reduction of efficiency. The crop control of nitrogen content proved that in case of every day watering of onion with clean water and mixture of liquid fraction with water concentration of 1:100-1:500 did not exceed the maximum admissible concentration which is 800 mg·kg−1. Thus, in case of onion cultivation for chives, taking into consideration the crop growth and low nitrogen content, it is recommended to use the mixture of liquid fraction with water of 1:500 concentration.
In case of traditional harvesting methods the losses of perennial grass seeds may reach 45-50% of the biological yield in unfavourable weather conditions. The paper presents the results of comparative assessment efficiency of various methods of harvesting of perennial seed grass. It was found that the use of special devices and structures in combine harvesters allows increase of yield of technological mixture to the combine tank, degree of seed threshing to 93% and limit the losses of crop to 20-29%. Harvesting of seeds in non-waste technology with harvesting of the entire yield with later transport, drying, threshing and seeds cleaning in stationary devices results in reduction of losses by 5 to 10% but it leads to the increase of energy inputs by 24-25% in comparison to traditional with threshing method. Harvesting with a combing method of plant seeds on a trunk in „Невейки” technology results in the increase of the seeds harvesting to 86-98% of a biological yield.
The article analyzes the current state of production of second generation biofuels in the world and evaluates the possibility of launching such production in Ukraine. The work is topical due to the fact that liquid biofuels can replace a certain share of motor fuels consumed in Ukraine, thus contributing to the strengthening of the country’s energy independence. The purpose of the study is to assess feasibility of a project on the production of second generation bioethanol in Ukraine; the task is to carry out a preliminary feasibility study for such a project. The analysis of the study of pure co-substrate fermentation and as a supplement for cattle manure proves that the maximum biogas yield obtained using alcohol stillage in a ratio of 40-80% increased compared to fermentation of pure cattle manure. The use of pure bards compared to the bard and the slurry mixture increases the maximum yield of biogas. It was found that the biogas obtained from the use of alcohol stillage is a high con-sumption of biogas with the methane content of between 70 and 78%.