Jacek Błaszczyk, Andrzej Karbowski and Krzysztof Malinowski
Object Library of Algorithms for Dynamic Optimization Problems: Benchmarking SQP and Nonlinear Interior Point Methods
The main purpose of this paper is to describe the design, implementation and possibilities of our object-oriented library of algorithms for dynamic optimization problems. We briefly present library classes for the formulation and manipulation of dynamic optimization problems, and give a general survey of solver classes for unconstrained and constrained optimization. We also demonstrate methods of derivative evaluation that we used, in particular automatic differentiation. Further, we briefly formulate and characterize the class of problems solved by our optimization classes. The solution of dynamic optimization problems with general constraints is performed by transformation into structured large-scale nonlinear programming problems and applying methods for nonlinear optimization. Two main algorithms of solvers for constrained dynamic optimization are presented in detail: the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) exploring the multistage structure of the dynamic optimization problem during the solution of a sequence of quadratic subproblems, and the nonlinear interior-point method implemented in a general-purpose large-scale optimizer IPOPT. At the end, we include a typical numerical example of the application of the constrained solvers to a large-scale discrete-time optimal control problem and we use the performance profiles methodology to compare the efficiency and robustness of different solvers or different options of the same solver. In conclusions, we summarize our experience gathered during the library development.
Przemysław Malinowski, Andrzej Biskupski and Józef Głowiński
Preparation methods of calcium sulphate and urea adduct
The paper presents the results of laboratory studies on the preparation of calcium sulphate and urea adduct by: grinding, compacting and mixing in the presence of physical water. A method for the measurement of urea conversion into the adduct form, which is based on the difference in solubility of free urea and the adduct bound urea CaSO4·4CO(NH2)2 in n-butanol, was developed. Mixing the reagents in the presence of physical water produced the best results. High urea conversion into the adduct form, over 85%, in the prepared samples indicates that this method can be successfully used to get CaSO4·4CO(NH2)2 adduct.
Przemysław Malinowski, Mieczysław Borowik, Wiesław Wantuch, Leszek Urbańczyk, Michał Dawidowicz and Andrzej Biskupski
The results of the study regarding utilization of the waste gypsum formed as a by-product during the production of the magnesium sulphate from dolomite have been presented. The use of this waste have been proposed for the production of granulated multi-component fertilizers containing 25% N; 8% S; 14% CaO and 3.5% MgO. In the process of fertilizer production, the urea which will be bounded with the calcium and magnesium sulphate from the waste in the form of adducts of CaSO4 . 4CO(NH2)2 and MgSO4 . CO(NH2)2 . 3H2O will be the source of nitrogen in the fertilizer. It has been stated on the basis of the laboratory tests that the fertilizer with the assumed composition can be obtained by means of granulation of the raw material pulp, along with the dried and ground product return. The possibility of the production of the fertilizer with good physical properties according to the assumed concept has been confirmed in the pilot scale
Przemysław Malinowski, Mirosław Olech, Józef Sas, Wiesław Wantuch, Andrzej Biskupski, Leszek Urbańczyk, Mieczysław Borowik and Jerzy Kotowicz
Production of compound mineral fertilizers as a method of utilization of waste products in chemical company Alwernia S.A.
The results of investigations on a possible utilization of waste products formed during the production of commercial and food inorganic salts are presented. Application of wastes in the production of compound fertilizers was suggested. The work covered a full research cycle starting from laboratory tests and ending on the production implementation. Fertilizer formulas were developed on the basis of laboratory tests. A possible production of fertilizers of suggested compositions was tested on a pilot plant scale. The compound fertilizer production with the use of waste raw materials was implemented in Chemical Company Alwernia S.A. It reduced the amount of wastes directed to industrial waste site.
Aneta Malinowska, Marian Jaskóła, Andrzej Korman, Adam Szydłowski, Karol Malinowski and Mirosław Kuk
To use effectively any radiation detector in high-temperature plasma experiments, it must have a lot of benefits and fulfill a number of requirements. The most important are: a high energy resolution, linearity over a wide range of recorded particle energy, high detection efficiency for these particles, a long lifetime and resistance to harsh conditions existing in plasma experiments and so on. Solid-state nuclear track detectors have been used in our laboratory in plasma experiments for many years, but recently we have made an attempt to use these detectors in spectroscopic measurements performed on some plasma facilities. This paper presents a method that we used to elaborate etched track diameters to evaluate the incident projectile energy magnitude. The method is based on the data obtained from a semiautomatic track scanning system that selects tracks according to two parameters, track diameter and its mean gray level.