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Open access

Andrzej Magiera, Katarzyna Kaczmarczyk and Ida Wiszomirska

Streszczenie

Wprowadzenie: Wydolność fizyczna i sprawność życiowa u ludzi w starszym wieku jest nie tyle wynikiem procesów starzenia się ustroju, ile biologicznie nieuzasadnionego obniżania aktywności ruchowej w miarę upływu lat. Czynniki psychologiczne, socjologiczne i inne decydują o narastającej już w średnim wieku skłonności do ograniczania w życiu codziennym wysiłku fizycznego. Diagnostyka stanu układu krążenia w zakresie wydolności fizycznej i tolerancji wysiłku u osób starszych jest znacznie utrudniona w stosunku do osób młodych. Do przyczyn powodujących taki stan rzeczy zaliczyć należy przede wszystkim naturalne procesy inwolucyjne związane z wiekiem.

Cel pracy: Celem niniejszej pracy jest ocena reakcji ortostatycznej układu krążenia za po- mocą wskaźnika Cramptona przy zmianie pozycji z leżącej do stojącej, oraz ewolucji wartości tego wskaźnika po 4 miesiącach wzmożonej aktywności fizycznej u osób w podeszłym wieku oraz. czy wskaźnik ten ma wartość diagnostyczną dla kwalifikacji osób starszych do badania wysiłkowego

Materiał i metody: Badania przeprowadzono na 44-osobowej grupie słuchaczek Uniwersytetu III Wieku Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego z Warszawy. Średnia wieku wynosiła 64.2. średnia masa ciała 66.5 kg. średnia wysokość ciała 158.5 cm. Próba polegała na dwukrotnej ocenie częstości skurczów serca i skurczowego ciśnienia tętniczego, po dziesięciu minutach w pozycji leżącej oraz po dwóch minutach od przyjęcia postawy spionizowanej.

Wyniki: Wydolność ortostatyczna układu krążenia przy zmianach pozycji ciała oceniono na poziomie dobrym i bardzo dobrym Osiągnięcie wysokich wartości w teście Cramptona nie koreluje ze zdolnością wysiłkową. Test Cramptona ma niską wartość diagnostyczną w zakresie przewidywania tolerancji wysiłku osób starszych.

Open access

Andrzej Magiera, Katarzyna Kaczmarczyk, Ida Wiszomirska and Ewelina Olszewska

Abstract

Introduction: Physical fitness has a direct impact on daily motor function. The level of fitness generally increases with age to reach a maximal level for a given individual at around 20-30 years of age, after which it begins to gradually decrease - with the pace of the decrease depending on the type of physical activity engaged in. At every age, physical fitness can be improved by the right physical training. One factor that frequently limits participation in various types of physical activity is insufficient free time. Older individuals frequently have more free time, yet do not spend it in an active way. At the same time, elderly individuals are becoming an increasingly sizeable group within society. That means that soon a large share of Poland's population will consist of individuals with low motor fitness. To mitigate this, organizations are being formed where older individuals can participate in motor-exercise classes. This type of activity can have a positive impact on the condition of older individuals, who represent an ever-larger part of society. It is thus possible to boost the physical fitness of the elderly, and doing so is very important for this population segment's health.

The objective of this study is to identify the level of physical fitness of elderly individuals who participate in the Third Age University at the Academy of Physical Education in Warsaw, and to trace the evolution of their physical fitness after 3 months of motor-exercise classes.

Materials and methods: The physical fitness of 31 women was tested. All were female participants in the Third Age University at the Academy of Physical Education in Warsaw. The mean age of the subjects was 65.3 years (SD 4.42), with mean body mass 66.4 kg (SD 7,44) and mean height 157.7cm (SD 5,11). Their body mass index (BMI) ranged between 21.5 and 31.7, with the mean value being 26.5. The test was conducted twice, after an interval of 3 months. The objective was to identify an exercise regime that would cause a given individual's heart rate to increase to 130 bpm.

Results: The individuals studied showed a low level of physical fitness. A 3 month period was sufficient to effect an improvement in the physical fitness of elderly individuals

Conclusions:

1. Physical capacity subjects is low.

2. Using regular physical activity adapted specifically for the needs of older people can improve physical performance in elderly people.

3. A period of three months is sufficient to improve physical performance in the elderly.

Open access

Andrzej Magiera, Artur Jagodziński, Katarzyna Kaczmarczyk and Ida Wiszomirska

Abstract

Introduction: Despite of sustainable living and increasing the knowledge of the future mothers, the number of preterm births have been at the same level through last years. In Poland it is stands at around 7%, comparable with other countries from European Union. The aim was to investigate the influence of prematurity on input power and regulation power during stress test in adult women. Achieved power depends on the level of physical efficiency and it is converted for specific VO2max values.

Material and methods: 11 women born prematurely at age of 25-30 years (28,2± 2,3) did stress test according to W150 protocol. The control group consisted of 15 women born on time (27-32, 28,5±2,4). The statistical analysis included t-Student and Shapiro-Wilk tests. Index height/regulation power and BMI/ regulation power have been subjected to correlations.

Results: There is statistical significant difference between input and regulation power in women born prematurely and the control group. Women from control group had significantly higher input and regulation power than women born premature. Moreover, there is proportionality between input and regulation power in two groups.

Conclusions:

1. Prematurity influences the amount of power generated in women aged 25-30 negatively - women born prematurely are evidently less physically efficient than women born on time.

2. There is a connection between input and regulation power in both groups. Higher amounts of input power indicates higher amounts of regulation power.

3. There is no relationship between BMI and amounts of power in stress test.

Open access

Agnieszka Zdrodowska, Ida Wiszomirska, Agnieszka Niemierzycka, Anna Czajkowska, Andrzej Magiera and Milena Słoń

Abstract

Introduction: Morphological and functional changes in cells, tissues and organs causing characteristic for old age reduction of the efficiency of all organs, and therefore decrease in the level of physical fitness. To determine its level, to find areas of weakness and select optimal physical activity programs that will improve the quality of life and health of older people it is necessary to multi-dimensional assess the level of physical fitness.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the fitness level of students of the University of the Third Age in Warsaw Almamer with Fullerton Functional Fitness Test in relation to American standards.

Material and methods: The study was conducted on a 40-person group of students of the University of Third Age Almamer in Warsaw, at the age of 60-70 years. Mobility assessment was based on a comparison of results obtained by the Fullerton Functional Fitness Test with standards developed by the authors test for the U.S. population.

Results: In all trials conducted with Fullerton Test women got positive results after normalization to the mean and standard deviation of the U.S. population peers. The greatest variation among the test subjects compared to American standards test result was observed in flexion of the forearm. Conclusions: The tested listeners of UTW characterized a good level of physical fitness Fullerton The test evaluated in relation to American standards. According to the authors, developing standards for the test used in Polish conditions would contribute to a more reliable assessment of people over 60 years old.

Open access

Kamil Wieprzowski, Marcin Bekas, Elżbieta Waśniewska, Adam Wardziński and Andrzej Magiera

Abstract

Radon Rn-222 is a commonly occurring natural radionuclide found in the environment from uranium-radium radioactive series, which is the decay product of radium Ra-226. The presence of radon carries negative health effects. It is, in fact, classified as a carcinogen, and therefore, it is necessary to continuously monitor its concentration. The aim of this study was to determine the level of radon-222 concentration in water intended for human consumption in the two voivodeships of Poland: West Pomeranian and Kuyavian-Pomeranian. Measurements were performed for more than 60 intakes. The level of radon was measured by using the liquid scintillation counting method. The range of measured radon concentration in the water from the West Pomeranian Voivodeship was from 0.90 to 11.41 Bq/dm3 with an average of 5.01 Bq/dm3, while that from the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship was from 1.22 to 24.20 Bq/dm3 with an average of 4.67 Bq/dm3. Only in three water intakes, the concentration of radon-222 exceeded the value of 10 Bq/dm3. The obtained results allowed to conclude that population exposure associated with radon-222 in water is negligible and there is no need to take further action. In the case of three intakes where a higher concentration of radon was found, the potential exposure was low.

Open access

Andrzej Wiśniewski, Wojciech Jarosz, Anna Czajkowska, Anna Mróz, Marcin Smolarczyk, Andrzej Magiera, Przemysław Kowalczyk, Dagmara Zimmerman-Rysz and Marek Kowalczyk

Abstract

Few studies have been published in Poland concerning body dimensions of firefighters from the State Fire Service although this knowledge is needed for e.g. development of personal protective equipment. The aim of the study was to evaluate body dimensions and weight-to-height ratio in firefighters from the State Fire Service. Using the anthropological procedures, body mass (BM) and body height (BH) were examined in 178 men at the chronological age (CA) of 19.5 to 53 years who were rescuers from the national rescue and fire brigades of the State Fire Service. The study participants were divided into three categories of CA: up to 25 years, between 24 and 44 years, and over 44 years. The results were compared to population standards. It was found that BH of the youngest rescuers was significantly higher (0.05) than in other study participants. Based on the standardized values of BM and BMI, population of firefighters aged over 25 years was found to be characterized by overweight and, in certain cases, even by obesity. The excess level of body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kgm2) was found in nearly 60% of study participants, with half of the group classified as overweight (n=31, BMI ranging from 25 to 29.9 kg/m2), and 10% classified as obese. Due to the worrying high percentage of cases of excess body mass in firefighters from the State Fire Service, it was found that it is recommended to evaluate the relationships between body height and mass on regular basis during periodical obligatory tests of physical fitness of rescuers from the State Fire Service and to increase the frequency and duration of training sessions.