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Andrzej Krach

Abstract

The present paper discusses determining diagonal branches in a mine ventilation network by means of a method based on the relationship A⊗ PT(k, l) = M, which states that the nodal-branch incidence matrix A, modulo-2 multiplied by the transposed path matrix PT(k, l ) from node no. k to node no. l, yields the matrix M where all the elements in rows k and l - corresponding to the start and the end node - are 1, and where the elements in the remaining rows are 0, exclusively. If a row of the matrix M is to contain only „0” elements, the following condition has to be fulfilled: after multiplying the elements of a row of the matrix A by the elements of a column of the matrix PT(k, l), i.e. by the elements of a proper row of the matrix P(k, l ), the result row must display only „0” elements or an even number of „1” entries, as only such a number of „1” entries yields 0 when modulo-2 added - and since the rows of the matrix A correspond to the graph nodes, and the path nodes level is 2 (apart from the nodes k and l, whose level is 1), then the number of „1” elements in a row has to be 0 or 2. If, in turn, the rows k and l of the matrix M are to contain only „1” elements, the following condition has to be fulfilled: after multiplying the elements of the row k or l of the matrix A by the elements of a column of the matrix PT(k, l), the result row must display an uneven number of „1” entries, as only such a number of „1” entries yields 1 when modulo-2 added - and since the rows of the matrix A correspond to the graph nodes, and the level of the i and j path nodes is 1, then the number of „1” elements in a row has to be 1. The process of determining diagonal branches by means of this method was demonstrated using the example of a simple ventilation network with two upcast shafts and one downcast shaft.

Open access

Wacław Dziurzyński, Andrzej Krach and Teresa Pałka

Abstract

Forecasting a ventilation process is based on two factors: using a validated software (Dziurzyński et al., 2011; Pritchard, 2010) and a properly prepared database encompassing the parameters describing the flow of air and gases, compatible with the adopted mathematical model of the VentGraph software (Dziurzyński, 2002). With a body of measurement data and a mathematical model for computer calculations and air flow simulation at our disposal, we proceed to develop a numerical model for a chosen network of mine headings. Preparing a numerical model of a ventilation network of a given mine requires providing a collection of data regarding the structure of the network and the physical properties of its elements, such as headings, fans, or stoppings. In the case of fire simulations, it is also necessary to specify the parameters describing the seat of a fire and the properties of the rocks of which the rock mass is comprised. The methods which are currently applied to this task involve manual ventilation measurements performed in headings; the results obtained in the course of these measurements constitute a basis for determining physical parameters, such as the aerodynamic resistance of a heading, density of the flow of air, or natural depression. Experience shows that - due to difficulties regarding accessibility of headings, as well as the considerable lengths of the latter - there are some nodes and headings in mines where such measurements are not performed. Thus, an attempt was made to develop a new methodology that would provide the missing data on the basis of some other available information concerning - for example - the air density, the geometry of headings and elevations. The adopted methodology suggests that one should start with balancing the air mass fluxes within the structure of a network of headings. The next step is to compile a database concerning the pressure values in the network nodes, based on the measurement results - and provide the missing pressure values on the basis of the available results of measurements carried out in adjacent nodes, as well as the pressure value calculated on the basis of the heading geometry and the given volumetric flow rate. The present paper discusses the methodology of compensating and balancing the volumetric air flow rates within a network of headings (Chapter 2) and the methodology of determining pressure values (Chapter 3) in the nodes of the network. The developed calculation algorithms - verified by means of sample calculations performed for a selected area of a mine ventilation network - were introduced into the VentGraph software system. The calculation results were presented in tabular form. The Summary section discusses the minuses and pluses of the adopted methodology.

Open access

Wacław Dziurzyński, Andrzej Krach and Teresa Pałka

Abstract

In the paper the results of investigations aimed at further identification of the phenomena occurring in abandoned workings and connected with the flow of air-gas (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon oxidation products) mixture with taking into consideration the impact of supplied mineral substances on the processes of self-heating of the coal left in goaves were presented. The known and successfully used method for the prevention of fires in abandoned workings is the technology of filling goaf with an ash-air mixture, which also raises the issue of the effective use of that mixture. The computer, i.e. digital simulation methods being developed and intended for the purpose of the process discussed here are a good complement of the use of that technology. A developed mathematical model describing the process of additional sealing of gob with wet slurry supplied with three pipelines is based on the balance of volume of the supplied mixture and contained in the body created in goaves. The form of that body was assessed on the basis of the observation results available in literature and the results of model investigations. The calculation examples carried out for the the longwall area and its goaf ventilated with the “U” system allow to state that the introduced modification of the mathematical model describing the flow of the mixture of air, gases, and wet slurry with consideration of the coal burning process in the fire source area was verified positively. The digital prognostic simulations have confirmed a vital impact of the wet slurry supplied into the goaf on the processes of coal burning and also the change of rate and volume flow rate of the air mixture in goaf. As a complement to the above it should be noted that such elements as the place of the slurry supply in comparison with the longwall inclination or fire source area location is of great importance for the effectiveness of the fire prevention used. The development of computer/ digital simulation methods requires further investigations of the model adopted in this study. Those investigations should be aimed at making credible the theoretical model of the mixture flow through porous medium and the supplied mineral material. Such investigations will allow to verify the body form based on the mixture parameters such as humidity, viscosity, and fluidity and depending on the properties of the porous medium. Further development of the modelling of the phenomena discussed in this paper should be based on the methods of use of the description of the flow of fluids and slurry on the basis of 3D models.