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  • Author: Andrzej Kowalczyk x
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‘Mountain resorts’: origins and evolution

‘Mountain resorts’: origins and evolution

The paper discusses the background for the emergence of such ‘mountain resorts’, their types and changes in their mode of operation. Some theoretical and practical issues will be illustrated with examples derived from Europe, North America, Asia and Africa.

Open access
in Turyzm
Real-time quantitative PCR for detection and identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2

Abstract

Introduction: Porcine pleuropneumonia inflicts important economic losses on most commercial herds. Detection of subclinical or chronic infection in animals still remains a challenge, as isolation and identification of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes is difficult and quantification of the bacteria on agar plates is often almost impossible. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a serotype-specific quantitative TaqMan probe-based PCR for detection of serotype 2 in pig lungs, tonsils, and nasal swabs.

Material and Methods: The primers were designed from the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis genes of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. PCR specificity and sensitivity were evaluated using reference strains and several other bacterial species commonly isolated from pigs.

Results: The real-time qPCR for detection of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 was highly specific and gave no false positives with other serotypes or different bacterial species of pig origin. The detection limit for pure culture was 1.2 × 104 CFU/mL, for lung tissue and nasal swabs it was 1.2 × 105 CFU/mL, and for tonsils - 1.2 × 105 CFU/mL.

Conclusion: The method can be used to serotype A. pleuropneumoniae isolates obtained during cultivation and to detect and identify A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 directly in nasal swabs and tonsil scrapings obtained from live pigs or lung tissue and tonsils collected post-mortem.

Open access
The world’s biggest hotel companies. Old trends and new tendencies

Abstract

Many hotels are owned by a few dozen so-called hotel chains or hotel systems. The rapid growth of big hotel companies can be regarded as proof of the entrance of hotel systems into the globalisation phase. Since 2006, companies from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) have been among the world’s top hotel systems. This year can be considered as the symbolic beginning of a new stage in the history of the largest hotel systems. This paper shows two main trends. On the one hand, the processes that could be observed in the market of the major global hotel systems from the 1990s are still discernible (for example, the position of the so-called hotel megasystems). On the other hand, new trends have come to the fore in recent years, notably the emergence of systems from the People’s Republic of China among the world’s largest hotel systems.

Open access
The Phenomenology of Tourism Space

Abstract

Although it is among the most frequently used notions in the study of tourism, the concept of tourism space is understood in a variety of ways. Similar to the term ‘geographical space’, it is often used intuitively, often in quite dissimilar contexts. This paper provides an analysis of the concept of ‘tourism space’ from the perspective of geography, based on a phenomenological approach.

Open access
in Turyzm