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Andrzej Kowalczyk

‘Mountain resorts’: origins and evolution

The paper discusses the background for the emergence of such ‘mountain resorts’, their types and changes in their mode of operation. Some theoretical and practical issues will be illustrated with examples derived from Europe, North America, Asia and Africa.

Open access

Andrzej Kowalczyk

Abstract

Many hotels are owned by a few dozen so-called hotel chains or hotel systems. The rapid growth of big hotel companies can be regarded as proof of the entrance of hotel systems into the globalisation phase. Since 2006, companies from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) have been among the world’s top hotel systems. This year can be considered as the symbolic beginning of a new stage in the history of the largest hotel systems. This paper shows two main trends. On the one hand, the processes that could be observed in the market of the major global hotel systems from the 1990s are still discernible (for example, the position of the so-called hotel megasystems). On the other hand, new trends have come to the fore in recent years, notably the emergence of systems from the People’s Republic of China among the world’s largest hotel systems.

Open access

Andrzej Kowalczyk

Abstract

Although it is among the most frequently used notions in the study of tourism, the concept of tourism space is understood in a variety of ways. Similar to the term ‘geographical space’, it is often used intuitively, often in quite dissimilar contexts. This paper provides an analysis of the concept of ‘tourism space’ from the perspective of geography, based on a phenomenological approach.

Open access

Arkadiusz Dors, Andrzej Kowalczyk and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól

Abstract

Introduction: Porcine pleuropneumonia inflicts important economic losses on most commercial herds. Detection of subclinical or chronic infection in animals still remains a challenge, as isolation and identification of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes is difficult and quantification of the bacteria on agar plates is often almost impossible. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a serotype-specific quantitative TaqMan probe-based PCR for detection of serotype 2 in pig lungs, tonsils, and nasal swabs.

Material and Methods: The primers were designed from the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis genes of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. PCR specificity and sensitivity were evaluated using reference strains and several other bacterial species commonly isolated from pigs.

Results: The real-time qPCR for detection of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 was highly specific and gave no false positives with other serotypes or different bacterial species of pig origin. The detection limit for pure culture was 1.2 × 104 CFU/mL, for lung tissue and nasal swabs it was 1.2 × 105 CFU/mL, and for tonsils - 1.2 × 105 CFU/mL.

Conclusion: The method can be used to serotype A. pleuropneumoniae isolates obtained during cultivation and to detect and identify A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 directly in nasal swabs and tonsil scrapings obtained from live pigs or lung tissue and tonsils collected post-mortem.

Open access

Andrzej Kowalczyk, Kinga Urbaniak and Iwona Markowska-Daniel

Abstract

Phylogenetic analysis of the genes determining influenza virus subtype - haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), was performed. The results showed that the Polish H1N2 isolate (A/Swine/Poland15817/2011) was reassortant of human-like swine H1N1 and human-like swine H3N2 origin. The novel isolate was presented to have a close phylogenic relationship with one of the latest European isolates of H1N2 (A/SW/Gent/102/2007 and A/SW/Hungary/13509/2007). Our evolutionary analyses also suggested that the HA and NA genes evolved in a significantly higher rate of synonymous substitutions after they were introduced from human to swine and established the European H1N2 swine lineage.

Open access

Andrzej Kowalczyk, Edyta Kozak, Magdalena Łyjak, Zygmunt Pejsak and Krzysztof Niemczuk

Abstract

Macrophages and cytokines are important in the control of inflammation and regulation of the immune response. However, they can also contribute to immunopathology in the host after viral infection and the regulatory network can be subverted by infectious agents, including viruses, some of which produce cytokine analogues or have mechanisms that inhibit cytokine function. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a number of proteins which modulate cytokine and chemokine induction, host transcription factor activation, stress responses, and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to elucidate the mechanisms of immune responses to ASFV in different subpopulations of porcine macrophages. A transcriptional immune response in different resident tissue macrophages following ASFV infection was presented in many publications. ASFV-susceptible porcine macrophages can be of several origins, such as peripheral blood, lungs, bone marrow, etc. blood monocytes, blood macrophages, and lung macrophages have demonstrated a modulation of phenotype. Monocyte-derived macrophages could express surface markers not found on their monocyte precursors. Moreover, they can undergo further differentiation after infection and during inflammation. When viruses infect such cells, immunological activity can be seriously impaired or modified.

Open access

Andrzej Kowalczyk, Kinga Urbaniak, Iwona Markowska-Daniel and Zygmunt Pejsak

Abstract

The aim of the study was to monitor genetic diversity and antigenic changes in the genome of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral isolates detected during the post-pandemic period in Poland. Clinical specimens obtained from three suspected cases of influenza were analysed by sequencing. Among the differences identified in amino acids sequences, nine substitutions were located within the antigenic HA1 sites and in five residues forming receptor-binding pocket. The HA(D222G) mutation was shown in the isolate Swine/Poland/134312/12 obtained from a mild case of the disease. It must be emphasized that, in general, clinically mild cases are caused by the viruses in which that specific mutation, i.e. haemagglutinin (D222G), does not occur.

Open access

Andrzej Wiśniewski, Wojciech Jarosz, Anna Czajkowska, Anna Mróz, Marcin Smolarczyk, Andrzej Magiera, Przemysław Kowalczyk, Dagmara Zimmerman-Rysz and Marek Kowalczyk

Abstract

Few studies have been published in Poland concerning body dimensions of firefighters from the State Fire Service although this knowledge is needed for e.g. development of personal protective equipment. The aim of the study was to evaluate body dimensions and weight-to-height ratio in firefighters from the State Fire Service. Using the anthropological procedures, body mass (BM) and body height (BH) were examined in 178 men at the chronological age (CA) of 19.5 to 53 years who were rescuers from the national rescue and fire brigades of the State Fire Service. The study participants were divided into three categories of CA: up to 25 years, between 24 and 44 years, and over 44 years. The results were compared to population standards. It was found that BH of the youngest rescuers was significantly higher (0.05) than in other study participants. Based on the standardized values of BM and BMI, population of firefighters aged over 25 years was found to be characterized by overweight and, in certain cases, even by obesity. The excess level of body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kgm2) was found in nearly 60% of study participants, with half of the group classified as overweight (n=31, BMI ranging from 25 to 29.9 kg/m2), and 10% classified as obese. Due to the worrying high percentage of cases of excess body mass in firefighters from the State Fire Service, it was found that it is recommended to evaluate the relationships between body height and mass on regular basis during periodical obligatory tests of physical fitness of rescuers from the State Fire Service and to increase the frequency and duration of training sessions.

Open access

Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Krzysztof Kwit, Kinga Urbaniak and Andrzej Kowalczyk

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate the current epidemiological situation concerning swine influenza (SI) in Poland. The study was based on an annual passive survey of 11,770 fatteners’ sera from 584 herds, taken at slaughterhouses within the last 30 months (from January 2010 till June 2012), as well as, an active monitoring conducted in 2011 and 2012, in 25 farms, using 388 sera taken from life pigs of different age/technological groups. The analysis of simultaneous circulation of different swine influenza virus (SIV) subtypes was taken into a deep consideration. The wide spread of SIV in Poland, including the occurrence of multiple SIV infections was demonstrated. In 2010 and 2011, the domination of H1N1 subtype and the most frequently co-circulation of H1N1 and H1N2 viruses was evidenced, while in the first 6 months of 2012, the co-circulation of H1N1 and H3N2 viruses was detected more often. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the epidemiological situation concerning SI in Poland is dynamic and similar to that observed in other European regions with high pigs’ density; however, the prevalence of antibodies and the occurrence of mixed SIV infections is lower than in Western Europe.

Open access

Hanna Goszczyńska, Leszek Królicki, Adam Bajera, Ewa Zalewska, Leszek Kowalczyk, Piotr Walerjan, Andrzej Rysz and Krystyna Kolebska

The Procedure for SPECT and BEAM Images Adjustment Visualisation of EEG Electrodes in SPECT Images

Preliminary results of research to devise a method allowing spatial alignment of BEAM maps obtained from EEG examinations with SPECT data are presented. The main concept of the method presented lies in simultaneous recording of multi-channel EEGs during SPECT examination, and also in visualizing location of EEG electrodes on SPECT images that provide spatial three dimensional coordinates assignment. The proposed methodology of simultaneous SPECT and EEG examinations could be a significant complement to results of epileptic focus localisation obtained with the ISAS method used for the last few years. The ISAS method allows localisation of focuses with 80% confidence, but it requires carrying out MRI examinations for alignment of compared anatomical structures on two SPECT images. Complementing these results with a BEAM map analysis would improve significantly the effectiveness of the examinations. This work presents results of experiments carried out on the Jaszczak phantom.