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  • Author: Andrzej Kowalczyk x
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Many hotels are owned by a few dozen so-called hotel chains or hotel systems. The rapid growth of big hotel companies can be regarded as proof of the entrance of hotel systems into the globalisation phase. Since 2006, companies from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) have been among the world’s top hotel systems. This year can be considered as the symbolic beginning of a new stage in the history of the largest hotel systems. This paper shows two main trends. On the one hand, the processes that could be observed in the market of the major global hotel systems from the 1990s are still discernible (for example, the position of the so-called hotel megasystems). On the other hand, new trends have come to the fore in recent years, notably the emergence of systems from the People’s Republic of China among the world’s largest hotel systems.


Introduction: Porcine pleuropneumonia inflicts important economic losses on most commercial herds. Detection of subclinical or chronic infection in animals still remains a challenge, as isolation and identification of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes is difficult and quantification of the bacteria on agar plates is often almost impossible. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a serotype-specific quantitative TaqMan probe-based PCR for detection of serotype 2 in pig lungs, tonsils, and nasal swabs.

Material and Methods: The primers were designed from the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis genes of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. PCR specificity and sensitivity were evaluated using reference strains and several other bacterial species commonly isolated from pigs.

Results: The real-time qPCR for detection of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 was highly specific and gave no false positives with other serotypes or different bacterial species of pig origin. The detection limit for pure culture was 1.2 × 104 CFU/mL, for lung tissue and nasal swabs it was 1.2 × 105 CFU/mL, and for tonsils - 1.2 × 105 CFU/mL.

Conclusion: The method can be used to serotype A. pleuropneumoniae isolates obtained during cultivation and to detect and identify A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 directly in nasal swabs and tonsil scrapings obtained from live pigs or lung tissue and tonsils collected post-mortem.


Phylogenetic analysis of the genes determining influenza virus subtype - haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), was performed. The results showed that the Polish H1N2 isolate (A/Swine/Poland15817/2011) was reassortant of human-like swine H1N1 and human-like swine H3N2 origin. The novel isolate was presented to have a close phylogenic relationship with one of the latest European isolates of H1N2 (A/SW/Gent/102/2007 and A/SW/Hungary/13509/2007). Our evolutionary analyses also suggested that the HA and NA genes evolved in a significantly higher rate of synonymous substitutions after they were introduced from human to swine and established the European H1N2 swine lineage.


Macrophages and cytokines are important in the control of inflammation and regulation of the immune response. However, they can also contribute to immunopathology in the host after viral infection and the regulatory network can be subverted by infectious agents, including viruses, some of which produce cytokine analogues or have mechanisms that inhibit cytokine function. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a number of proteins which modulate cytokine and chemokine induction, host transcription factor activation, stress responses, and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to elucidate the mechanisms of immune responses to ASFV in different subpopulations of porcine macrophages. A transcriptional immune response in different resident tissue macrophages following ASFV infection was presented in many publications. ASFV-susceptible porcine macrophages can be of several origins, such as peripheral blood, lungs, bone marrow, etc. blood monocytes, blood macrophages, and lung macrophages have demonstrated a modulation of phenotype. Monocyte-derived macrophages could express surface markers not found on their monocyte precursors. Moreover, they can undergo further differentiation after infection and during inflammation. When viruses infect such cells, immunological activity can be seriously impaired or modified.