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Andrzej Knapik

Abstract

Background: The analysis of demographic tendencies indicates a continuing process of extending life expectancy in numerous societies. Alongside the decline in fertility, the continuing process of extending life expectancy is the primary cause for the aging of societies. An increasing percentage of the elderly require defining the welfare among older people and its factors.

Aim: This article presents various views on successful aging and introduces the authorial Successful Aging Index model, which was the basis for a questionnaire diagnosing the quality of aging. The author’s intention was to create a diagnostic tool for said process.

Conclusions: Presented tool according to the author can be very useful for diagnosing the course of successful aging. However, this requires additional empirical testing.

Open access

Andrzej Knapik, Edward Saulicz and Rafał Gnat

Kinesiophobia - Introducing a New Diagnostic Tool

Technical development of human civilisation brings about a decrease of adaptation potential of an individual, which is directly linked to deficient motor activity. Only precise identification of factors leading to hypokinesia would make prophylactic and therapeutic actions possible. In this article, authors would like to introduce a new, original tool aiming at diagnosing limitations of motor activity in adults. They propose a synthetic diagnosis of hypokinesia in two domains: biological and psycho-social, which is based on the contemporary model of health.

Open access

Jerzy Rottermund, Andrzej Knapik, Aneta Warmuz- Wancisiewicz and Mariola Saulicz

Abstract

Background: Man is exposed to falls performing daily activities, their effects turn out to be more severe especially in the later decades of life. After 60 years, it appears to be a larger number of fractures resulting in the limitation of physical fitness, health complications and life threatening. Therefore, prevention efforts conducted in the form of an in-depth analysis of the falls’ causes which already happened, control of health and proper treatment, conducting systematic, interesting and varied physical activities - in conjunction with education and mental change in a determined way they can and should reduce the risk of falls of the elderly.

Open access

Andrzej Knapik, Jerzy Rottermund, Aneta Warmuz-Wancisiewicz and Jolanta Witanowska

Abstract

Background: Research of health determinants confirmed its beneficial relationships with the optimum level of physical activity at any age. The problem is the physical passivity of societies. In the elderly, this problem is of particular importance, which is conditioned by both biological factors and social. This justifies the diagnosis of relationships: the barrier activity - activity - well-being.

Material/Methods: 393peoplewere tested:216women and 177men aged65 -85 years. A questionnaire with closed questions was used as a tool in the research. Physical activity was examined using selected questions of Baecke questionnaire, barriers to physical activity using a scale KCS, and self-assessment of health - by using the SF-36.

Results: Correlation analysis of age and the activity showed a low relationship for the women and no relationship for the men. There were no differences in activity due to sex, either due to the occurrence of chronic diseases. There is a weak correlation between age and kinesiophobia among women, no relationship was found in the group of men. Prevalence of chronic diseases differentiated the level of kinesiophobia only in women. Analysis of health self-assessment showed a relatively well-being in the test - the average PC and MC were above 50 points.

Conclusions: Women represent a lower level of physical activity than men, but at an older age, these differences are no longer statistically significant. However, the level of activity barriers is still higher. Aging is a process which varies greatly individually, and this applies to activity, its barriers, and self-assessment of health. Age is not a category that fully explains the complex issues depending on the variables examined.

Open access

Aneta Warmuz-Wancisiewicz, Jolanta Witanowska, Paulina Ufniarz, Andrzej Knapik, Bożena Stemplewska and Beata Jarecka

Abstract

Introduction. Steadily growing market of medical services currently presents the patient as a client of medical facility. Narrowing the medical market to the pediatric ward, apart from meeting the needs and care of the sick child, the main goal is a good opinion of the parent. Aim. The aim of the study was to obtain the opinions of parents of hospitalized children about the professional tasks of pediatric nurses. Materials and methods. The survey was conducted in the group of 60 parents of children hospitalized in pediatric wards with the use of authors’ own questionnaire. Results. The majority of respondents (80%) believe that the continuing presence of a parent in the hospital is beneficial for the medical treatment of the child. The number of 76.7% believe that their presence in the hospital makes the child not feeling lonely while suffering. As many as 93.3% of parents said that nurses explain them all doubts and that they attempt to work with them for the recovery of the child. When it comes to 90% of respondents, they said that the aid and information on the care of a sick child received from the nurses are sufficient. As many as 68.3% believe that the nursing staff has a high level of professional skills, and 93.3% - that nurses provide physical and mental safety to hospitalized children. When it comes to 91.7% of parents, they said that nurses have respectful approach to the little patients. The working conditions of nurses in the opinion of 68.3% of respondents have an impact on their child care. Conclusions. Caregivers positively evaluate the work done by nurses in the wards. Nurses spend with children the right amount of time. In the opinion of parents, working conditions of nurses have an impact on their work with the child. Most parents claim that the work of nurses is responsible, physically and mentally hard, and it requires patience and composure.

Open access

Andrzej Myśliwiec, Adam Posłuszny, Edward Saulicz, Iwona Doroniewicz, Paweł Linek, Tomasz Wolny, Andrzej Knapik, Jerzy Rottermund, Piotr Żmijewski and Paweł Cieszczyk

Abstract

Atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is a developmental anomaly often occurring in persons with Down’s syndrome (DS). According to various reports, AAI affects from 6.8 to 27% of the population with DS. The aim of this review was to illustrate the issue of AAI with regard to the progressively changing state of scientific knowledge. The extended distance between the rear surface of the frontal arcus of the C1 cervical vertebra and the anterior surface of C2 cervical vertebra dens (anterior atlanto-odontoid distance, AAOD) indicates the occurrence of AAI and is detectable through X-ray examination. Hypoplasia of the C2 dens, also detectable through X-ray examination, is another suggested risk factor for AAI. According to current data, the methodology of taking measurements is inconsistent, which leads to errors in interpretation. As research focusing on AAI was progressing, new data emerged from other studies on persons with DS, suggesting that neurological symptoms in persons with DS that indicated the occurrence of spinal cord compression were an important factor in medical imaging detection of AAI. One of the main arguments supporting this thesis is that in isolated cases spinal cord (SC) damage was noted during screening examinations conducted on a large population of subjects. Moreover, cases in which the neurological symptoms indicate spinal cord compression existed long before the occurrence of the actual damage also remain of significant importance. Therefore, it is necessary to promote neurological studies on persons with DS to enable early diagnosis of spinal cord compression and, at the same time, reduce the use of medical imaging in cases of neurological symptoms.