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  • Author: Andrzej K. Siwicki x
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Barbara Kazuń, Krzysztof Kazuń, Joanna Żylińska and Andrzej K. Siwicki

Abstract

The presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) favors the stabilization of intestinal flora, facilitates digestion, improves the assimilability of fodder, and has an immunomodulatory effect on the immune system. According to current research, the application of LAB following antibiotic treatment prevents the development of opportunistic bacteria inhabiting the digestive tract. In the study the potential probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains, which can be administered as an alternative to antibiotic treatment in aquaculture, were investigated under in vitro conditions. The strains of L. plantarum were characterized for important properties such as the ability to grow in the presence of 10% fish bile, a tolerance of low pH, and antagonism to pathogens dangerous for fish such as Aeromonas salmonicida and Pseudomonas fluorescens; therefore, they meeting the criteria for strains with probiotic properties. In view of currently increasing resistance to antibiotics and a decrease of their efficiency, probiotic bacteria can serve to support immunity to infections in the future.

Open access

Izabela Deperasińska, Patrycja Schulz and Andrzej K. Siwicki

Abstract

Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, is a single-stranded RNA virus affecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). It is known to be responsible for pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) which are increasing problems, causing high fish mortality and economic losses in the European aquaculture industry. Pancreas disease was first described in Atlantic salmon in Scotland in 1976 and a similar disease caused by the closely related sleeping disease virus was first described in rainbow trout in France. There have also been reports of salmonid alphavirus infections from other European countries, including Ireland, England, Norway, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Salmonid alphaviruses have been classified into six subtypes (SAV1–6). SAV1 and SAV4–6 cause pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon in Ireland or Scotland, SAV2 is the causative agent of sleeping disease in rainbow trout, and SAV3 has been detected in Atlantic salmon in Norway. The aim of this paper was to summarise current knowledge of infections caused by salmonid alphavirus and diagnostic methods including the newest techniques, and to briefly describe prevention from SAV infections by vaccination.