The paper is on environmental condition of sandy grassland on alluvial deposits. The soil and phytosociological study ware conducted south of Warsaw in middle Vistula river valley. Listing of vascular plants and shallow soil sampling were made in order to answer the question of plant and soil relationship. Standard chemical determination directed on trophism were done in plant and soil material. The spatial distribution of chemical parameters of plants and soils is related to local microrelief and distance of Vistula river. The plants dominating the study prefer less fertile habitats. The soil is being enriched by water from the Vistula river. High carbon content is correlated with the presence of the Salix arenaria. The greater the share of vegetation not belonging to the grass family, the greater the carbon content. Potassium and phosphorus looks like to be the less plant-dependent elements. Its documents an initial stage of development of the Vistula river valley environment.
The process of abandonment of arable land seems to be one of the main factors of changes in landscape and soil properties. This problem occurs on nearly 10% of arable land in Poland. The natural aspect of transformation is connected with the entrance of birch trees on uncultivated land and the anthropogenic aspect is associated with pine plantations. In the beginning, the appearance of trees on the former arable land changes soil properties because soil (and plant) is the most dependent component of the natural environment. In this paper, the role of birch and pine was analysed in comparison to arable land, abandoned land without trees and birch tree communities of different age. After the entrance of birch trees, soil profiles were enriched in nitrogen and elements such as aluminium, iron, cadmium, lead, cobalt, zinc, which were moved from the sod horizon of soil or come from the atmospheric load and were accumulated in litter or the humus horizon. Compared to arable land, some elements, e.g. calcium had lower concentration under birch trees. In comparison to cultivated land, birch and pine trees made the soil environment more natural, as expressed in the chemical properties of soil.
The lake deposits in Płock Basin (case studies of Lakes Rakutowskie and Żłoby)
Reconstruction of development of Lakes Rakutowskie and Żłoby in the late Pleistocene and Holocene was the aim of this research. Analysis of content of calcium carbonate, organic matter and C14 datings (7 samples) were done for two cores of sediments of 750 cm long. An average rate of accumulation was counted. Sediments of Lake Rakutowskie show homogeneity along the core which indicates similarity of sedimentation conditions. Sediments of Lake Żłoby were diversified and show variety related to cyclic changes. A common feature is a thick layer of fine sand without carbonate deposited during the older dryas, shown in both cores. The difference in sediment features of both lakes (which have similar depths) indicates that the Lake Żłoby is the more dynamic, filtering element, preceding Lake Rakutowskie in system of water catchment.
It is observed increasing of abandoned land in Poland in last decade of 20th century.The part of abandoned land is usually covered by birch tree community. The entrance of birches, especially on pure sandy area, changes properties of soil. The samples of soil horizons, litter in different stages of decomposition and leaves from birch trees, were taken into analysis. The role of birch was analysed also in comparison to arable land, abandoned land without trees and different ages birch trees communities. After the entrance birch trees soil profiles were enriched in nitrogen and elements such as aluminium, iron, cadmium, lead, cobalt, zinc, which were moved from soil or come from atmospheric load and were accumulated in litter or humus horizon. Compared to arable land, some elements (for example calcium) had lower concentration under birch trees. After several years without fertilization the relationship between elements were changed. In early stages (until 10 years) in litter horizons potassium prevails calcium, later – calcium prevails potassium. Birch trees made soil environment more natural compared to arable land.
The paper discusses the issue of the admixtures’ effect on results of granulometric composition determinations by Casagrande’s areometric method in modification by Prószyński. An experiment was conducted involving preparation of samples with known granulometric composition and determination of their composition by means of the aerometric method. Three types of samples were prepared: base (control), containing organic matter, and containing carbonates. Results of the determinations showed a considerable effect of the admixture of organic matter and calcium carbonate on the accordance of determinations, depending on their percent content. The study results also confirmed known dependencies of disturbances in proportions between the sandy and silty-clayey fraction. A practical conclusion from the research is the determination of the threshold of the organic matter and carbonates percent content at which the determination should be absolutely preceded by processes of mineralisation and decalcification.