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Andrzej Harasimiuk, Bogumił Wicik and Tomasz Grabowski

The lake deposits in Płock Basin (case studies of Lakes Rakutowskie and Żłoby)

Reconstruction of development of Lakes Rakutowskie and Żłoby in the late Pleistocene and Holocene was the aim of this research. Analysis of content of calcium carbonate, organic matter and C14 datings (7 samples) were done for two cores of sediments of 750 cm long. An average rate of accumulation was counted. Sediments of Lake Rakutowskie show homogeneity along the core which indicates similarity of sedimentation conditions. Sediments of Lake Żłoby were diversified and show variety related to cyclic changes. A common feature is a thick layer of fine sand without carbonate deposited during the older dryas, shown in both cores. The difference in sediment features of both lakes (which have similar depths) indicates that the Lake Żłoby is the more dynamic, filtering element, preceding Lake Rakutowskie in system of water catchment.

Open access

Hubert Warzyński, Agnieszka Sosnowska and Andrzej Harasimiuk


The paper discusses the issue of the admixtures’ effect on results of granulometric composition determinations by Casagrande’s areometric method in modification by Prószyński. An experiment was conducted involving preparation of samples with known granulometric composition and determination of their composition by means of the aerometric method. Three types of samples were prepared: base (control), containing organic matter, and containing carbonates. Results of the determinations showed a considerable effect of the admixture of organic matter and calcium carbonate on the accordance of determinations, depending on their percent content. The study results also confirmed known dependencies of disturbances in proportions between the sandy and silty-clayey fraction. A practical conclusion from the research is the determination of the threshold of the organic matter and carbonates percent content at which the determination should be absolutely preceded by processes of mineralisation and decalcification.