The article presents the analysis of roundabouts design aspects including the location of underground and overground infrastructure. Authors also undertake an attempt to assess the existing situation with planning conditions. Many differences depended on the roundabout size, location, surroundings, natural conditions, landform technology used were noted. Roundabouts design should include both the natural arrangements and art installations, increasing the area of urban green areas in parallel using the area as a place for works of art exposure. For Zielona Góra urban area this is of particular importance because of the multitude of roundabouts and their good position in the city structure.
Jakub Kostecki, Andrzej Greinert, Michał Drab, Róża Wasylewicz and Barbara Walczak
Earth surface is under the continous influence of the environmental factors - both natural and anthropogenic. The significant impact on the environment can be noted in areas adjacent to the metal industry plants, in a consequence of pollutants emission, especially dusts containing the heavy metals, into the atmosphere,. In the surroundings of Głogów Copper Smelter (GCS) elevated amounts of copper and lead has been noted. In the soils of the test sites were found up to 5250 mg・kg-1 Cu and 1290 mg・kg-1 Pb. The forest litter contained 3.3-5.1 more Cu and 3.9-8.6 Pb than the humic horizon of the soil. Analyse of the different soils covering the GCS protective forest area let specify the stabilising role of particle size distribution, TOC content and the soil reaction to Cu and Pb migration in the environment.
Michał Ćwiąkała, Andrzej Greinert, Jakub Kostecki and Leszek Rafalski
Using the alkaline fly ash after combustion of lignite as the acid soils neutralizer is a technique known for decades. Due to many disadvantages of the direct fly ash application it is sought to modify this material prior to its use. The process of fly ash modification in the magnetic activator involved breaking up fly ash to small grain sizes in order to obtain a material with a very large specific surface and modified properties. The purpose of the research was to compare the properties of unmodified fly ash with those of ash modified in the magnetic activator in terms of its usefulness in the neutralization of acidic soils. Unmodified fly ash was classified as a medium-grained calciferous material. The basic components of ash were silicates (33.28% of SiO2) and calcium compounds (31.26% of CaO). It has a low heavy metal content falling within a range characteristic of coal ash and meeting soil quality standard requirements. As a result of activation, the following changes were obtained in the properties of modified ash compared with unmodified ash: sand fraction content – reduced to 0.40, silt fraction content – increased by 1.40, silt fraction content – increased by 1.68, content of the sum of the dust and silt fractions – increased by 1.49, specific surface – increased by 1.65, fineness – reduced by 0.48. Modification of fly ash in the magnetic activator was found to have improved the physical properties of ash as acidic soil neutralizer, and its chemical properties make such an application possible.
Przemysław Charzyński, Renata Bednarek, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz and Łukasz Uzarowicz
Technosols are relatively young soil group in WRB soil system, and there is still a lot of to do to better understand processes taking place in these soils and to classify them in a proper way. The objectives of this paper were to (1) evaluate Technosol and 'technogenic' qualifiers for other Reference Soil Groups, and (2) propose new solutions which would improve the classification of technogenic soils in WRB. New qualifiers . Edific, Nekric, Misceric, Artefactic, Radioactivic and new specifier . Technic . are proposed to be added to keys to Technosols. Moreover, Salic and Sodic qualifiers should be also available for Technosols. Furthermore, the supplementation of definitions of thionic horizon and sulphidic material with reference to Technosols is also suggested
Jakub Kostecki, Andrzej Greinert, Róża Wasylewicz, Roksana Adam, Bartłomiej Garbera, Przemysław Knap, Maciej Ostapkowicz and Bartosz Stanisławiak
In most cases, traffic pollution deposition is linear with regularities in its distribution in transect routes (canyon-type effect). The aim of this study is to identify different characteristics of heavy metal deposition on large roundabouts, which are open spaces atypical in terms of the characteristics of the air mass flow along road lanes. The study was conducted on four large roundabouts in Zielona Góra. The content of the selected elements in the tested soils was: Cd 0.54–1.22 mg·kg−1 d.m., Cu 3.60–29.3 mg·kg−1 d.m., Cr 2.17–4.63 mg·kg−1 d.m., Zn 26.6–89.9 mg·kg−1 d.m., Pb 10.9–75.4 mg·kg−1 d.m. The geo-accumulation index was also calculated. The threshold values for communication areas were not exceeded, and the content of the elements was generally comparable between the roundabouts. However, we found some differences within particular roundabouts.
Cezary Kabała, Przemysław Charzyński, Jacek Chodorowski, Marek Drewnik, Bartłomiej Glina, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz, Michał Jankowski, Jerzy Jonczak, Beata Łabaz, Andrzej Łachacz, Marian Marzec, Łukasz Mendyk, Przemysław Musiał, Łukasz Musielok, Bożena Smreczak, Paweł Sowiński, Marcin Świtoniak, Łukasz Uzarowicz and Jarosław Waroszewski
The sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (SGP6) aims to maintain soil classification in Poland as a modern scientific system that reflects current scientific knowledge, understanding of soil functions and the practical requirements of society. SGP6 continues the tradition of previous editions elaborated upon by the Soil Science Society of Poland in consistent application of quantitatively characterized diagnostic horizons, properties and materials; however, clearly referring to soil genesis. The present need to involve and name the soils created or naturally developed under increasing human impact has led to modernization of the soil definition. Thus, in SGP6, soil is defined as the surface part of the lithosphere or the accumulation of mineral and organic materials permanently connected to the lithosphere (through buildings or permanent constructions), coming from weathering or accumulation processes, originated naturally or anthropogenically, subject to transformation under the influence of soil-forming factors, and able to supply living organisms with water and nutrients. SGP6 distinguishes three hierarchical categories: soil order (nine in total), soil type (basic classification unit; 30 in total) and soil subtype (183 units derived from 62 unique definitions; listed hierarchically, separately in each soil type), supplemented by three non-hierarchical categories: soil variety (additional pedogenic or lithogenic features), soil genus (lithology/parent material) and soil species (soil texture). Non-hierarchical units have universal definitions that allow their application in various orders/types, if all defined requirements are met. The paper explains the principles, classification scheme and rules of SGP6, including the key to soil orders and types, explaining the relationships between diagnostic horizons, materials and properties distinguished in SGP6 and in the recent edition of WRB system as well as discussing the correlation of classification units between SGP6, WRB and Soil Taxonomy.