The paper analyses technical equipment of the selected dairy farms. Data from questionnaires carried out in 96 farms in 2015 constituted a research material. Municipalities Lszewo-Borki in Mazowieckie Voivodeship were covered by the survey. A survey questionnaire, which consisted of two parts, was a research instrument. The first concerned general information on a farm and its owner, and the other consisted of eight questions on technical equipment used for breeding dairy cows. The research allowed to determine that farmers assessed the condition of their machinery park as average (50%) or good (40%). One out of ten farmers claimed that the used machinery park in a farm is in a bad condition. Majority of respondents have allotted from PLN 20 to 50 thousand for investments related to enhancement of a machinery park within the last 5 years. On the other hand, a considerable part of farms allotted up to PLN 20 thousand for development of a machinery park. The investigated group included also farms, which allotted more than PLN 500 thousand for development of a park.
The paper presents the impact of the applied technologies on milk yield of cows in dairy farms. The scope of the research covered technical equipment used in the dairy cattle breeding and milking in 50 farms on the area of Grajewo Province in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The studies were carried out in 2016 with the diagnostic survey method based on the interview questionnaire developed for this purpose. The studies proved that 68% of the respondents from Grajewo Province maintain cattle in a stanchion-tide stable system and the remaining 32% in a free stall system. The group (48%) of the surveyed farmers maintain animals on a deep litter and 34% of them use shallow litter. In case of 18% of the investigated farms, animals are maintained on a slatted floor. In case of 68% of the investigated farms their owners feed cattle in the TMR system while the remaining 32% do it traditionally. The analysed farms in milk production use mainly pipeline milking machines (38%) and bucket milking machines (36%). 22% of the investigated farms have a milking parlour and 4% own a milking robot. A statistical analysis proved a significant correlation between the maintenance system of animals, number of lairs in a cow shed, TMR feeding of cattle, manner of obtaining milk and milk yield of cows.
The article presents advantages resulting from implementation of the precise agriculture technology in a farm. The objective of the paper was to analyse devices used in precise agriculture on the example of the selected agricultural farm located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. Documentation of the farm and data included in the questionnaire of the survey carried out with the farm owner were the source of indispensable information. For determination of the costs of return of investments planned in the farm, the method of data analysis and TeeJeet calculation were used. Implementation of the precise agriculture technology in the investigated farm caused reduction of the costs related to running a farm. The introduced changes allowed saving approximately PLN 14 thousand annually on crop protection treatments and approximately PLN 19 thousand annually on the precise sowing of mineral fertilizers. Costs related to the purchase of devices which allow generation of such savings return after 3-4 years.
The objective of the paper was to evaluate the precision agriculture technology on the territory of Podlaskie Voivodeship. Research material consisted of data from the survey carried out in 100 randomly selected farms located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The concept of “precision agriculture” is known among the surveyed farmers. Based on the research which was carried out, a relation between the surface area of the farm, education and age of respondents was reported. Precision agriculture technology is more popular among farmers who are less than 40 years old, who have higher education and big agricultural farms. Majority of farmers participating in the survey carries out regular research on the soil richness. Moreover, 46% uses in their farms modern technologies for plant production, only 10% uses the system of positioning and 8% of the investigated farms uses the system for guiding agricultural machines, 14% of the investigated farmers uses the system for parallel guiding of a tractor, less than 40% applies the system of variable dosing of fertilizers and plant protection substances. Majority of the investigated farmers claims that new technologies are necessary and they should be applied; however, they indicate too high costs and distribution of farms as the main reason for limitations.
The paper presents the analysis of use of IT technologies by farmers. Data from a research survey carried out in 100 randomly selected farms in 2015 constituted research material. The research area covered farms located in Podlaskie Voivodeship on the area of two counties i.e. Wysokie Mazowieckie (50 questionnaires) and Zambrów County (50 questionnaires). The questionnaire is a research instrument. The research was to determine the level of use of specialist computer programs by farmers and their needs concerning acqui sition of information on innovations in agriculture. Due to the obtained results one may find out that a low number of farmers uses specialist computer programs in their farms. In Wysokie Mazowieckie County it is only 8% of respondents and in Zambrów County 14%. The main source of infonnation on innovations in agriculture is the Internet, professional agricultural press and television.
The aim of the study was to carry out a research on the use of milking robots compared to utilization of milking parlors. There was no such study in literature on the milking farms in Poland and abroad. The presented study, except for scientific knowledge, provides also practical utilization as a good agriculture practice on the farm. Tests were carried out simultaneously in two barns belonging to the same farm. In barn K, milking was used in the rib bone milking parlor, and in barn N with milking robots. The results covering three years of research from 2016 to 2018 were presented. It was concluded that the milk yield of young cows in both barns was almost identical, while in the second and subsequent lactation, cows in barn N had higher yield. In barn N, about 3% more milk was obtained from LKS below 400 thaus. ml−1, compared to barn K. Time of cows’ utilization in both cowsheds was similar, while in barn N the life efficiency of culled cows was higher by about 1,000 kg of milk. The level of deficiency and its structure, due to the number and stage of lactation, were very similar in both barns. In barn N, the uniformity of milk production throughout the year was more even compared to barn K. There were reserves in the use of the milking robot due to the low number of cows per milking stand and the need to better adaptation of milking times to current cow performance. The milking robot improves cow welfare and ensures high milk yield and good cytological quality of milk.
Many factors influence milk production and farm development. The most critical factor determining the production is the price of sold milk and indirectly the costs connected with its production. In majority of farms, milk production is profitable. The decisive factors influencing the profitability of milk production are the balance of nutrition and ensuring the welfare of dairy herds. Equally important are the genetic characteristics of cows and proper rearing of calves. The study shows that the modernization of farms also influences the development of milk production by improving the optimization of energy use and reducing labour intensity, and overall optimization of production costs.