Krzysztof Kostro, Urszula Lisiecka, Andrzej Żmuda, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Krzysztof Stojecki and Iwona Taszkun
Expression of CD4, CD8, and CD25 surface markers on T lymphocytes and levels of IFNγ, IL-10, and TNF-α in colostrum and milk were determined in sows vaccinated against Trueperella pyogenes in the final stage of pregnancy. The autovaccine, prepared from Trueperella pyogenes, administered twice to pregnant sows six and three weeks before the anticipated delivery significantly increased the percentages of TCD4+, TCD8+, and TCD25+ as well as levels of IFNγ, TNF-α, and IL-10 in colostrum and milk. The enhanced immune potential of colostrum effectively protected the piglets against T. pyogenes infections during weaning and thus reduced the economic losses on the particular farm concerned, where T. pyogenes infections occur endemically. Knowledge of the profile of cellular and humoral immune response in colostrum and milk of vaccinated sows will enable the design of a T. pyogenes infection prophylactic programme for suckling pigs and weaners, which are most susceptible to infections.
Paweł Wojtaszczyk, Krzysztof Kostro, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Urszula Lisiecka, Krzysztof Stojecki and Andrzej Żmuda
The Forkhead genes (transcription complex Fox) play many important roles in the maintenance and determination of biological processes underlying carbon-based life. The expression of Fox genes occurring as a result of reciprocal interactions at the transcriptional level influences the correct function of the immune system as regards the context of general activity of immunological parameters, as well as exposure to aetiological agents. In the case of model organisms and species, in which the knowledge about genomic sequences is incomplete, understanding the above-mentioned transcriptional complex is still insufficient, despite the existence of numerous scientific publications. It is worth noting that Fox genes exist in amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum and in the majority of species they were not characterised. Among many coding sequences included in the transcriptional complex Forkhead, Foxp3, Foxn1, and Foxj1 genes are of a great importance from immunological point of view, being partially jointly responsible for determining features related to productivity. The paper provides general characterisation of selected Fox genes and is an introduction to the presentation of new data, which can be applied at the level of biological differentiation of the populations of domestic and wild animals.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Piotr Dobrowolski, Krzysztof Kostro, Iwona Taszkun, Andrzej Żmuda, Tomasz Blicharski and Paweł Kędzia
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON), given alone or with bentonite (which eliminates mycotoxicity) in the diet of mink dams throughout mating, pregnancy, and lactation period to pelt harvesting, on the mechanical properties and geometry of their long bones.
Material and Methods: The minks were randomly assigned into two groups: a control group (not supplemented with DON, n = 15) and a group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat and divided into three sub-groups (each sub-group n = 15), depending on bentonite dose: 0 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 alone; 2 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 and bentonite at a concentration of 2 kg 1000 kg−1; 0.5 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 and bentonite at a concentration of 0.5 kg 1000 kg−1.
Results: The DON treatment reduced the length of the femur compared to the control group and reduced the bone weight dependently on the amount of bentonite supplementation. However, DON treatment reduced the MRWT and CI of the femur, irrespective of the bentonite supplementation, compared to the control. The total BTD and BMC decreased in all DON-treated groups (irrespective of the bentonite supplementation). Furthermore, the densitometric analysis showed that the main changes in BMD and BMC indicated bone loss in the proximal and distal parts of bone covering the trabecular bone; whereas when bentonite was given at the dose of 2 kg 1000 kg−1 an increase in the whole BMD and BMC was observed in the femoral midshaft.
Conclusion: Analysis of the geometrical parameters seems to indicate that endosteal resorption was delayed after bentonite supplementation. The addition of bentonite diminished the DON action on bone homeostasis in the mink dams. Thus bentonite could prevent DON-induced bone loss in a dose-dependent manner.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Siemowit Muszyński, Krzysztof Kostro, Iwona Taszkun, Andrzej Żmuda, Tomasz Blicharski and Monika Hułas-Stasiak
Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d) and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks (Neovison vison) of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: nontreated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1.1 mg·kg-1 of feed. Results: The final body weight and weight and length of the femur did not differ between the groups. However, DON contamination decreased mechanical endurance of the femur. Furthermore, DON reduced the mean relative wall thickness and vertical wall thickness of the femur, while vertical cortical index, midshaft volume, and cross-sectional moment of inertia increased. Finally, DON contamination did not alter bone tissue density, bone mineral density, or bone mineral content, but decreased the values of all investigated structural and material properties. Conclusion: DON at applied concentration probably intensified the process of endosteal resorption, which was the main reason for bone wall thinning and the weakening of the whole bone.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Krzysztof Kostro, Andrzej Jakubczak, Iwona Taszkun, Jadwiga Jaworska-Adamu, Andrzej Żmuda, Karol Rycerz and Siemowit Muszyński
The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox) during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.