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  • Author: Andrzej Świątkowski x
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Abstract

The efficiency of walnut, pistachio and hazelnut shells to remove three monochlorophenols (2-CP, 3-CP and 4-CP) from aqueous solutions has been investigated. To describe the kinetic data pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models were used. The kinetics data were fitted better into the pseudo-second order model with the coefficient of determination values greater than 0.99. The k2 values increased in the order 4-CP < 3-CP < 2-CP. Sorption was also analyzed as a function of solution concentration at equilibrium. The experimental data received were found to be well described by the Freundlich isotherm equation. Effectiveness of chlorophenols removal from water on the walnut, pistachio and hazelnut shells was comparable. Individual differences in sorption of monochlorophenols were also negligible.

Abstract

Adsorptive removal of 2-, 3- and 4-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by granular activated carbon was studied. The influence of different experimental parameters like initial concentration, carbon dosage and pH on the adsorption of monochlorophenols were evaluated. The influence of type of acid and base used for water acidification or alkalization was also tested. The results indicate that acidic pH is favorable for the adsorption of chlorophenols; however the type of acid or alkali used for the change of pH has a little influence and did not significantly affect the adsorption efficiency. The pH played an important role in the adsorption kinetics of chlorophenols at pH values above the pKa values of the compounds, while little influence on adsorption rate was observed if pH was decreased below the pKa values

Abstract

The paper examines single- and multicomponent adsorption onto granular activated carbon. The quantities adsorbed in the study were determined using HPLC with UV detection. The experimental data were analysed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich and the Sips adsorption isotherms. With a single component being adsorbed, high coefficients of determination and low mean square errors indicated that the Sips isotherm fitted the adsorption equilibrium well. Further experiments were carried out using aqueous solutions containing two or three adsorbed components in different proportions. For these solutions, the literature methods of predicting multicomponent equilibrium using single-component data did not yield positive results. Assuming that in the investigated range of concentrations no competitive adsorption occurred, the authors propose a method for calculating the equilibrium concentrations in the liquid phase using the equations obtained for individual components. The results achieved correspond very well to the experimental data.