Post-peat water bodies formed as a result of peat digging for fuel in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century are common in the middle part of Dobrzyńskie Lakeland. In many cases peat was dug almost completely to form small water bodies. In the studied part of the lakeland 56.24 ha or 10.20% of peatland area have been exploited. The share of peatlands in the surface area of particular regions varied from 3.79% to 9.81%. The degree of peat exploitation also varied. Peat coverage of 7.06% was larger than the mean for Poland (3.80%) but close to that in young glacial areas. A group of water bodies formed after peat digging differed in terms of water quality. Physical and chemical properties of waters in studied water bodies are typical of surface and shallow ground waters in young glacial areas. They are fresh waters of a slightly higher content of mineral ions and of neutral to alkaline pH. Their electrolytic conductivity ranged between 300 and 500 μS∙cm-1. Bicarbonates and calcium dominated their ionic composition. Post-peat water bodies were colonised by pleustonic and rush plant communities. Their species composition indicates eutrophic habitat conditions. Despite the fact that post-peat water bodies were formed as a result of intense environmental disturbance, now they increase landscape diversity of the middle part of Dobrzyńskie Lakeland and are habitats of many rare and endangered plant species.
The aim of the paper was to present the correlation between soil types specified in the sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (SGP6 2019) and Polish bonitation classification. The comparisons included two categories of agricultural land: arable soils and soils of permanent grasslands. In Poland bonitation maps are one of the oldest documentations regarding soil cover. They were elaborated in an uniform manner and based on the field examination of soil profiles. Soil information reflected specific rules adopted in the soil quality classification, including identification of soil types based on genetic criteria and recognition of appropriate sequence of specific horizons in the soil profile. Publication of the sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification enabled the attempt to adjust soil units (soil types) specified in both systems. Despite the distinction of new soil units in the Soil Classification of Poland (SGP6 2019), the usage of bonitation maps and classification protocols should not pose major difficulties in reinterpretation of soil types. This indicates on the possibility to introduce, similarly to year 2012, the terminology adapted to the requirements of modern soil science knowledge without causing significant changes in the soil-valuation table.
Barbara Kalisz, Andrzej Lachacz, Roman Glazewski and Andrzej Klasa
Labile fractions of organic matter can rapidly respond to changes in soil and they have been suggested as sensitive indicators of soil organic matter. Two labile fractions of organic carbon in the soils amended with fresh municipal sewage sludge in two rates (equivalent of 60 kg P ha-1 and 120 kg P ha-1) were studied. Soils under studies were overgrown with Salix in Germany, Estonia and Poland. In Polish soils application of sewage sludge increased the content of both labile organic carbon fractions (KMnO4-C and HWC) for a period of one year. Estonian soils were stable and no distinct changes in labile organic carbon fractions occurred.
Soils in two river valleys (Rozoga and Omulew) in north-eastern Poland were investigated. The valleys are located on a sandy outwash plain formed during the Vistulian (Weichelian) Glaciation. The soils are drained, used as meadows and classified as Fluvic Umbric Gleysol, Fluvic Mollic Gleysol, and Eutric Fluvic Histic Gleysol (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015). The aim of the study was to identify the composition of mineral matter and to determine the types of clay minerals and intermediate stages of clay minerals by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The studied floodplain soils are rich in organic matter and contain considerable mineral alluvial admixtures. The content of clay fraction (< 2.0 μm) is low (0.02–5.61% of total mineral matter). Higher content of clay fraction was noted in soils with elevated content of organic matter, which can be evidence of simultaneous accumulation of both components. In deeper depressions occurring in river valleys (oxbow lakes), a specific deposit termed silty telmatic mud (16–24% TOC, 50–75% silt, 3.1–5.6% clay fraction content) was accumulated. On the other hand, in shallow depressions, a muddy deposit was accumulated (5.7–7.7% TOC, sandy texture). The main identified clay minerals were smectite, vermiculite, illite and kaolinite as well as variety of mixed-layer clays. Alluvial clay admixture in studied soil formations showed mineralogical similarity to typical floodplain mineral soils (Fluvisols). Mineral fraction of studied soils is mostly of allochthonous origin.
Cezary Kabała, Przemysław Charzyński, Jacek Chodorowski, Marek Drewnik, Bartłomiej Glina, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz, Michał Jankowski, Jerzy Jonczak, Beata Łabaz, Andrzej Łachacz, Marian Marzec, Łukasz Mendyk, Przemysław Musiał, Łukasz Musielok, Bożena Smreczak, Paweł Sowiński, Marcin Świtoniak, Łukasz Uzarowicz and Jarosław Waroszewski
The sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (SGP6) aims to maintain soil classification in Poland as a modern scientific system that reflects current scientific knowledge, understanding of soil functions and the practical requirements of society. SGP6 continues the tradition of previous editions elaborated upon by the Soil Science Society of Poland in consistent application of quantitatively characterized diagnostic horizons, properties and materials; however, clearly referring to soil genesis. The present need to involve and name the soils created or naturally developed under increasing human impact has led to modernization of the soil definition. Thus, in SGP6, soil is defined as the surface part of the lithosphere or the accumulation of mineral and organic materials permanently connected to the lithosphere (through buildings or permanent constructions), coming from weathering or accumulation processes, originated naturally or anthropogenically, subject to transformation under the influence of soil-forming factors, and able to supply living organisms with water and nutrients. SGP6 distinguishes three hierarchical categories: soil order (nine in total), soil type (basic classification unit; 30 in total) and soil subtype (183 units derived from 62 unique definitions; listed hierarchically, separately in each soil type), supplemented by three non-hierarchical categories: soil variety (additional pedogenic or lithogenic features), soil genus (lithology/parent material) and soil species (soil texture). Non-hierarchical units have universal definitions that allow their application in various orders/types, if all defined requirements are met. The paper explains the principles, classification scheme and rules of SGP6, including the key to soil orders and types, explaining the relationships between diagnostic horizons, materials and properties distinguished in SGP6 and in the recent edition of WRB system as well as discussing the correlation of classification units between SGP6, WRB and Soil Taxonomy.